Authors:V. Bhargava, V. Rao, S. Marathe, S. Sahakundu, and R. Iyer
A radiochemical method is described for the separation of heavier rare earths from the fission of uranium. The method is particularly
suitable for the separation of low yield (10−5%–10−7%), highly asymmetric rare earth fission products viz.179,177Lu,175Yb,173Tm,172,171Er,167Ho and161,160Tb in the neutron induced fission of natural and depleted uranium targets. Additional separation steps have been incorporated
for decontamination from239Np (an activation product) and93-90Y (a high fission-yield product) which show similar chemical behaviour to rare earths. Separation of individual rare earths
is achieved by a cation exchange method performed at 80°C by elution with α-hydroxyisobutyric acid (α-HIBA).
Authors:V. V. Deshpande, M. D. Karkhanavala, and U. R. K. Rao
It is shown that the heat of transition of the phase change II → I at 129° on heating KNO3 is dependent on the thermal history of the sample, since it involves two steps, viz., II→ III and III→ I at 2° interval. During cooling, the latter step is fast and truly reversible, though with a temperature hysteresis. The former step is sluggish and is dependent both on temperature and time. Our results indicate that KNO3 can be used for calibration purpose only if the material has not been heated beyond 128° in the immediately preceding three hours.
Authors:Ch. B. V. N. Raju, H. K. Sharma, Ch. S. Rao, and G. N. Rao
Linear gradient HPLC on a C8 column has been used for separation of individual related substances of amoxicillin listed in the European Pharmacopoeia and a newly identified degradation impurity. The USP plate count for the amoxicillin peak was more than 3000 and USP tailing for the same peak was less than 2.0. Forced degradation studies were conducted on amoxicillin drug substance using ICH stress study guidelines to demonstrate the specificity and stability-indicating nature of the method. A new impurity observed after thermal and alkaline degradation was identified as N-pivaloylamoxicillin. The LOD and LOQ for individual related substances were below 0.045 and 0.086% (w/w), respectively. The method was fully validated in accordance with ICH analytical method validation guidelines. The results of the study prove the method is specific, precise, linear, robust, and can be used for evaluation of the stability of amoxicillin drug substance.
Authors:A. B. A. Ahmed, A. S. Rao, M. V. Rao, and R. M. Taha
Gymnemic acid (GA), a well known anti-diabetic compound has been detected in methanol extracts of intact leaves and in vitro callus cultures derived from leaf explants of Gymnema sylvestre. Callus biomass was developed in MS medium with optimum plant growth regulators (OPGRs) of 2,4-D (1.5 mg L−1) + KN (0.5 mg L−1) under abiotic stress conditions at 45 days determined by growth curve analysis. GA detection and quantification were carried out using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), highperformance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gravimetric techniques. GA detection peak area and their absorption spectra were evaluated through HPTLC and HPLC with the standard GA. Quantification of GA had showed the linearity, accuracy, robustness and precision by HPLC. GA content was significantly higher in gravimetric method than HPLC. All these methods were found to be simple, accurate, selective and rapid and could be successfully applied for the determination of GA. It could have potential as a pharmaceutical drug for Type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and obesity.
Authors:Janhavi Rao, Mohan Kumar, L. Sathiyanarayanan, Savita Yadav, and V. Yadav
A sensitive, selective, precise and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for analysis of sertraline hydrochloride in the bulk drug and in formulations has been established and validated. Aluminum foil HPTLC plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 as stationary phase were used with toluene-ethyl acetate-ethanol-ammonia 8:2:0.5:0.1 (ν/ν). A compact spot was obtained for sertraline hydrochloride (RF 0.33 ± 0.02). Densitometric analysis was performed in absorbance mode at 273 nm. Regression analysis of calibration data revealed a good linear relationship (r2 = 0.9996 ± 0.02) between response and concentration over the range 2000–12000 ng per band. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, and robustness. Sertraline hydrochloride was subjected to acidic and alkaline hydrolysis, oxidation, dry heat treatment, and photodegradation. Peaks of degradation products were well resolved from that of the pure drug and had significantly different RF values. Statistical analysis showed the method enabled repeatable and selective analysis of sertraline hydrochloride. The method can be used for routine quantitative analysis of sertraline hydrochloride in the bulk drug and in formulations.
Authors:M. Charyulu, C. Karekar, V. Rao, and P. Natarajan
The dissolution of carbide fuels was tried with the aid of various oxidants like H2O2, NaBiO3, (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6, (NH4)2S2O8, and AgO in nitric acid medium. During the dissolution, the carbon dioxide liberated has been measured. Among the oxidants studied, H2O2 and NaBiO3 appeared to be more effective for dissolution of carbides. 200–300 mg of sintered uranium carbide sample dissolved within 15 minutes in the presence of oxidants H2O2 or NaBiO3. Mixed carbide sample (70%) was dissolved within 30 min, whereas plutonium carbide required more than one hour. From the resulting solutions uranium and plutonium could be determined by conventional redox methods. More than 97% of plutonium could be recovered and purified from the resulting carbide solutions by conventionally used anion exchange method.
Authors:V. Bhagavathy, M. Reddy, T. Rao, and A. Damodaran
A method is described for the simultaneous multielement determination of yttrium and lanthanides at microgram level. This is based on the preconcentration of these lanthanides on to 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) modified naphthalene. The optimal conditions for quantitative preconcentration viz., pH, amount of PAN modified naphthalene, time of stirring and aqueous phase volume were systematically evaluated. The quantitation of lanthanides was carried out by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analyzer, employing241Am annular source, via their characteristic K X-rays. The developed procedure gave reliable results in the analysis of xenotime samples.
Authors:V. Rao, I. Pius, M. Subbarao, A. Chinnusamy, and P. Natarajan
A method for the precipitation of plutonium(IV) oxalate from homogeneous solutions using diethyl oxalate is reported. The precipitate obtained is crystalline and easily filterable with yields in the range of 92–98% for precipitations involving a few mg to g quantities of plutonium. Decontamination factors for common impurities such as U(VI), Am(III) and Fe(III) were determined. TGA and chemical analysis of the compound indicate its composition as Pu(C2O4)2·6H2O. Data are obtained on the solubility of the oxalate in nitric acid and in mixtures of nitric acid and oxalic acid of varying concentrations. Green PuO2 obtained by calcination of the oxalate has specifications within the recommended values for trace foreign substances such as chlorine, fluorine, carbon and nitrogen.
Authors:S. Balasubrahmanyam, B. Viswanathan, V. Rao, and J. Kuriacose
The catalytic activity of La2CuO4 for the decomposition of H2O2 was studied in detail. La2CuO4 was prepared by the ceramic method in four different ways. Gamma irradiation of the La2CuO4 samples increased their catalytic activity irrespective of the method of preparation. The enhanced catalytic activity is attributed to irradiation generated Cu+ centres on the surface of the catalyst.
Authors:G. Mahajan, M. Charyulu, V. Rao, and P. Natarajan
An improved method for the determination of plutonium in an aliquot using cerium/IV/ as an oxidant is reported. Plutonium is oxidized quantitatively to plutonium/VI/ in nitric acid medium by cerium/IV/, the excess of which is chemically destroyed in a single step by hydrochloric acid. Plutonium/VI/ is then reduced to plutonium/IV/ with a known amount of Fe/II/, the excess of which is back titrated potentiometrically with standard dichromate. Results of analysis of 3–5 mg amounts of plutonium in aliquots containing standard plutonium nitrate solution are reliable within 0.2%. Effect of the presence of some relevant foreign ions has been studied. The application of the method for the analysis of mixtures containing various amounts of uranium and plutonium has been examined.