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Higher plant population and nitrogen management is an adopted approach for improving crop productivity from limited land resources. Moreover, higher plant density and nitrogen regimes may increase the risk of stalk lodging, which is a consequence of complex interplant competition of individual organs. Here, we aimed to investigate the dynamic change in morphology, chemical compositions and lignin promoting enzymes of the second basal inter-nodes altering lodging risk controlled by planting density and nitrogen levels. A field trial was conducted at the Mengcheng research station (33°9′44″N, 116°32′56″E), Huaibei plain, Anhui province, China. A randomized complete block design was adopted, in which four plant densities, i.e., 180, 240, 300, and 360 × 104 ha−1 and four N levels, i.e., 0, 180, 240, and 300 kg ha−1 were studied. The two popular wheat varieties AnNong0711 and YanNong19 were cultivated. Results revealed that the culm lodging resistance (CLRI) index of the second basal internodes was positively and significantly correlated with light interception, lignin and cellulose content. The lignin and cellulose contents were significantly and positive correlated to light interception. The increased planting density and nitrogen levels declined the lignin and its related enzymes activities. The variety AnNong0711 showed more resistive response to lodging compared to YanNong19. Overall our study found that increased planting densities and nitrogen regimes resulted in poor physical strength and enzymatic activity which enhanced lodging risk in wheat varieties. The current study demonstrated that stem bending strength of the basal internode was significantly positive correlated to grains per spike. The thousand grain weight and grain yield had a positive and significant relationship with stem bending strength of the basal internode. The results suggested that the variety YanNong19 produces higher grain yield (9298 kg ha−1) at density 240 × 104 plants ha−1, and 180 kg ha−1 nitrogen, while AnNong0711 produced higher grain yield (10178.86 kg ha−1) at density 240 × 104 plants ha−1 and with 240 kg ha−1 nitrogen. Moreover, this combination of nitrogen and planting density enhanced the grain yield with better lodging resistance.

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Abstract  

Synergic extraction of Eu(III) and Tb(III) with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) and tribenzylamine (TBA) as neutral donor ligand has been studied in chloroform from perchlorate media at lower pH range. The stoichiometric composition of the adduct was established as M(TTA)3 · 3TBA for both the elements, having a coordination number 9. The formation constants K3,0 and K3,3 and stability constant 3,3 of the organic phase reaction have been calculated. The effect of temperature on the extraction has also been studied. The adducts are stabilized by the large exothermic enthalpy change. The calculated thermodynamic functions such as H, S and G were used to elucidate the mechanism of synergism in which the coordination numbers of the lanthanide ions increased.

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Field crops are subjected to numerous inconsiderate climatic hazards that negatively affect physiological processes, growth and yield. Drought is one of the major abiotic factors that limits the agricultural productivity especially in the arid and semi-arid areas of the globe. Silicon (Si) is a naturally occurring beneficial nutrient which modulates plant growth and development events and has been known to improve the crop tolerance to abiotic stresses. With the objective to investigate the role of silicon nutrition on maize hybrids under limited moisture supply, a two year field study was conducted during 2010–11 at Post Graduate Research Station (PARS), University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. We evaluated growth of two maize hybrids P-33H25 and FH-810 under well watered (100% field capacity) and water deficit situation (60% field capacity) as affected by Si application. Silicon was added in soil @ 100 mg/kg using Calcium Silicate as source. Water deficit condition significantly reduced agro-morphological and physiological attributes of maize plants. Silicon application significantly increased the plant height, leaf area index, yield and related attributes along with improvement in photosynthetic rate, leaf water status and osmotic adjustment under limited moisture supply. It was concluded that silicon application to droughtstressed maize enhanced its growth and yield owing to improved photosynthetic rate, higher osmotic adjustment, increased water status and lowered transpiration.

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Summary

A thin-layer chromatographic (TLC)–densitometric method for the separation and simultaneous determination of 3 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, namely, tropisetron hydrochloride (TRP), granisetron hydrochloride (GRN), and ondansetron hydrochloride dihydrate (OND) was developed. Densitometric measurements were done at 285 nm for TRP and 305 nm for both OND and GRN using the reflectance–absorbance mode. Separation was carried out on silica gel TLC plates using chloroform–methanol–ammonia (10 m) (8:2:0.1, V/V) as the mobile phase. The three drugs have been separated with R F values of 0.23 ± 0.01, 0.63 ± 0.01, and 0.76 ± 0.01 for TRP, GRN, and OND, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification for linear regression analysis of the studied drugs ranged from 2.79 to 12.05 and from 8.45 to 36.50 ng per band, respectively, while for polynomial regression, the limits of detection and quantification for the studied drugs ranged from 3.40 to 15.51 and from 10.31 to 46.99 ng per band, respectively. The developed method was applied for determination of the studied drugs in pharmaceuticals and human plasma with good precision and accuracy. Stability-indicating thin-layer chromatographic method for the determination of OND in the presence of its degradation products under different conditions and subsequent kinetic study had been successfully applied.

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Vegetation in natural desert and agro-ecosystems was investigated in the middle sector of Egypt. The vegetation was classified by the Two Way Indicator Species Analysis technique (TWINSPAN) into nine vegetational groups representing seven habitat types: desert, fallow land, winter crops of old cultivated land, summer crops of old cultivated land, Citrus orchards, winter crops of reclaimed land, and summer crops of reclaimed land. Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis (DCCA) demonstrates that soil factors especially soil texture, CaCO3, organic carbon and electric conductivity contribute significantly to the distribution of species. In all habitat types, species diversity is higher in winter than in summer season. The weed species diversity is greater in the reclaimed areas compared to the old cultivated land and in winter crops than in summer ones.

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Introduction

Endophytic fungi associated with desert plants have a crucial role to enable these plants to tolerate abiotic stress, such as heat and drought.

Methods

In this study, a thermophilic fungal endophyte was isolated from a hot desert-adapted plant, Cullen plicata Delile. The endophytic fungus was (molecularly) identified as Thermomyces lanuginosus, and inoculated plants were coded as E+ and the control as E−.

Results

This fungus had an effective growth-promoting activity on its host plant and increased the plant resistance to heat stress as well.

Discussion

Our findings demonstrate that thermophilic fungal endophytes can enhance drought and heat stress tolerance in desert plants by ecophysiological mechanisms and improve growth of its host plants.

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Summary

Ashwaghanda, Withania somnifera, is one of the most widely used herbs in Ayurvedic medicine. Leaves and roots are the traditionally used parts of the plant. An RP-HPLC method using a binary acetonitrile-water gradient containing 0.1% acetic acid has been developed for analysis of withaferin A. The method was validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and used for analysis of the withanolide content of the flowers, leaves, and roots of W. somnifera. The withanolide content was highest in the flowers.

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Three accurate, sensitive, simple, and precise spectrophotometric methods along with thin-layer chromatography (TLC)–densitometric method were developed, optimized, and validated for the determination of folic acid in the presence of its two impurities (photodegradation products), namely, pteroic acid and para-aminobenzoic acid. Method A is the ratio difference spectrophotometric method (RDSM) which depends on measuring the difference value in the ratio spectrum, where the difference between 291 and 313 nm was used for the determination of folic acid, while the difference between 305 and 319 nm was selected for the estimation of para-aminobenzoic acid; on the other hand, pteroic acid can be determined using the first derivative of ratio spectra spectrophotometric method at 262 nm. Method B is the double-divisor spectrophotometric method (DDSM); this method is based on using the ratio spectrum obtained by the division of the spectrum of ternary mixture by the spectrum of binary mixture containing two of the three mentioned components, and in this method, folic acid, para-aminobenzoic acid, and pteroic acid were measured at 242, 313, and 258 nm, respectively. Method C is the mean-centering of ratio spectra spectrophotometric method (MCR); in this method, folic acid, para-aminobenzoic acid, and pteroic acid can be measured using the mean-centered second ratio spectra amplitudes at 317–318 (peak to peak), 264–265 (peak to peak), and 232 nm, respectively. Lastly, method D is a TLC‒densitometric one that depends on the separation and quantification of the mentioned components on TLC silica gel 60 F254 plates, using methanol‒ iso-propanol‒water‒acetic acid (9:0.5:0.5:0.2, by volume) as the developing system, followed by densitometric measurement of the separated bands at 280 nm. Method validation was carried N.W. Alia, N.S. Abdelwahaba, M.M. Abdelrahmana, and S.I. Tohamy, Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Alshaheed Shehata Ahmed Higazy St., 62514, Beni-Suef, Egypt; and B.A. El-Zeiny, Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr EL-Aini Street, ET 11562, Cairo, Egypt. *E-mail: salwatohamy2015@yahoo.com out according to the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines, and the proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of folic acid in pharmaceutical formulations, where no interference from additives has been found. The results obtained by the proposed methods were statistically compared with those obtained by the official reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method, in which no significant difference was observed.

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Abstract

A new, sensitive, stability-indicating reversed-phase HPLC method was validated and applied for the simultaneous quantitation of sodium valproate and two paraben preservatives; methylparaben, and propylparaben in the liquid dosage form. Stability tests were carried out through exposure of the analyte's solution to stress conditions. Separation of the analytes was achieved on (waters) C18 Column (150 mm × 3.9 mm, 5 μm). A mixture of 0.05 M monobasic potassium phosphate pH 3.5 and acetonitrile (50:50; v/v) was applied at 1.5 ml/min flow rate and UV detection wavelength at 210 nm. The degradation products and the analytes were completely separated. The linearity was performed in the range of 50–150 % from a target concentration of 10 μg/ml propylparaben, 90 μg/ml methylparaben, and 2.88 mg/ml sodium valproate with a coefficient correlation (R2) 1.0 for methylparaben, propylparaben and sodium valproate. The validation results of the suggested method were in a good agreement with ICH guidelines. Application of the proposed method for analysis of liquid dosage forms was successfully carried out in the routine quality control process.

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