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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
M. Alrakabi
,
G. Singh
,
A. Bhalla
,
S. Kumar
,
S. Kumar
,
A. Srivastava
,
B. Rai
,
N. Singh
,
J. Shahi
, and
D. Mehta

Abstract  

The elemental concentration of uranium in the samples collected from the ground water and the canal water in the Bathinda district of Punjab state, India, have been investigated using X-ray fluorescence technique. The residues obtained after drying the water samples were analysed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer consisting of Mo-anode X-ray tube equipped with selective absorbers as an excitation source and an Si(Li) detector. The uranium concentration values in significant fraction of the shallow ground water samples from the hand pumps is found to be above the permissible level of 15 ppb recommended by World Health Organisation for the drinking water, and its values in the canal water samples are below 5 ppb. To investigate the flyash from the coal-fired thermal power plants as a possible source of ground water contamination, the water samples collected from the surroundings of the power plants and the flyash samples were also analyzed. The results rule out flyash as a source of uranium contamination. Agrochemical processes occurring in the calcareous soils in the region are the favoured potential source of uranium contamination of the ground water.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
S. Sareen
,
N. Bhusal
,
G. Singh
,
B.S. Tyagi
,
V. Tiwari
,
G.P. Singh
, and
A.K. Sarial

Heat stress is a matter of a great concern for the wheat crop. Heat stress usually either hastens crop development or shortens the grain filling duration, which severely reduces grain yield. Being a complex trait, understanding the genetics and gene interactions of stress tolerance are the two primary requirements for improving yield levels. Genetic analysis through generation mean analysis helps to find out the nature of gene actions involved in a concerned trait by providing an estimate of main gene effects (additive and dominance) along with their digenic interactions (additive × additive, additive × dominance, and dominance × dominance). In the present investigation, we elucidated the inheritance pattern of different yield contributing traits under heat stress using different cross combinations which could be helpful for selecting a suitable breeding strategy. Thus six generations of five crosses were sown normal (non-stress, TS) and late (heat stress, LS) in a randomized block design with three replications during two crop seasons. The model was not adequate for late sown conditions indicating the expression of epistatic genes under stress conditions. The traits i.e. Days to heading (DH), Days to anthesis (DA), Days to maturity (DM), Grain filling duration (GFD), Grain yield (GY), Thousand grain weight (TGW), Grain weight per spike (GWS) and Heat susceptibility index (HSI) under heat stress conditions were found under the control of additive gene action with dominance × dominance interaction, additive gene action with additive × dominance epistatic effect, dominance gene action with additive × additive interaction effect, additive and dominance gene action with dominance × dominance interaction effect, additive gene action with additive × dominance epistatic effect, additive gene action with additive × additive interaction effect and dominance gene action with additive × additive interaction effect, respectively.

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Saltol, a major QTL for salt exclusion, was derived from ‘Pokkali’, a salt-tolerant rice cultivar. Apart from Pokkali, many genotypes with wide variation for salinity tolerance offer ample scope for identifying new genes or QTLs underlying various tolerance mechanisms. Such genes could be aggregated into high-yielding backgrounds to reinforce a breeding programme. To identify potential donors for salt tolerance and prospective parental combinations for developing high-yielding salt-tolerant cultivars, ten genotypes were subjected to salt stress and evaluated for morpho-physiological traits and marker-allele polymorphism in the Saltol-QTL region. Although the salt-susceptible high-yielding varieties clustered together in a 3-D plot, principal component analysis showed marked spatial isolation among the tolerant genotypes. Unlike Pokkali and its derivative FL496, Rahspunjar maintained a higher level of K+ despite high Na+ influx in shoots. The wider genetic distances observed at both phenotypic and genotypic levels suggest the possibility of getting transgressive segregants among the offspring of crosses between Rahspunjar and Gayatri or Swarna Sub1. Similarly, SR 26B, which coped with the stress by diluting the Na+ load by maintaining a higher growth rate, differed from Pokkali or Nona Bokra: these two coped with the stress by regulating the transmission of Na+ from roots to photosynthetically active sites. The F2:3 population derived from Savitri × SR 26B showed wide morpho-physiological diversity for salt tolerance. SR 26B was the most distant genotype from Pokkali in the Saltol QTL region and was salt tolerant despite the absence of Pokkali alleles in this region.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
S. L. Krishnamurthy
,
S. K. Sharma
,
D. K. Sharma
,
P. C. Sharma
,
Y. P. Singh
,
V. K. Mishra
,
D. Burman
,
B. Maji
,
B. K. Bandyopadhyay
,
S. Mandal
,
S. K. Sarangi
,
R. K. Gautam
,
P. K. Singh
,
K. K. Manohara
,
B. C. Marandi
,
D. P. Singh
,
G. Padmavathi
,
P. B. Vanve
,
K. D. Patil
,
S. Thirumeni
,
O. P. Verma
,
A. H. Khan
,
S. Tiwari
,
M. Shakila
,
A. M. Ismail
,
G. B. Gregorio
, and
R. K. Singh

Genotype × environment (G × E) interaction effects are of special interest for identifying the most suitable genotypes with respect to target environments, representative locations and other specific stresses. Twenty-two advanced breeding lines contributed by the national partners of the Salinity Tolerance Breeding Network (STBN) along with four checks were evaluated across 12 different salt affected sites comprising five coastal saline and seven alkaline environments in India. The study was conducted to assess the G × E interaction and stability of advanced breeding lines for yield and yield components using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. In the AMMI1 biplot, there were two mega-environments (ME) includes ME-A as CARI, KARAIKAL, TRICHY and NDUAT with winning genotype CSR 2K 262; and ME-B as KARSO, LUCKN, KARSA, GOA, CRRI, DRR, BIHAR and PANVE with winning genotypes CSR 36. Genotypes CSR 2K 262, CSR 27, NDRK 11-4, NDRK 11-3, NDRK 11-2, CSR 2K 255 and PNL 1-1-1-6-7-1 were identified as specifically adapted to favorable locations. The stability and adaptability of AMMI indicated that the best yielding genotypes were CSR 2K 262 for both coastal saline and alkaline environments and CSR 36 for alkaline environment. CARI and PANVEL were found as the most discernible environments for genotypic performance because of the greatest GE interaction. The genotype CSR 36 is specifically adapted to coastal saline environments GOA, KARSO, DRR, CRRI and BIHAR and while genotype CSR 2K 262 adapted to alkaline environments LUCKN, NDUAT, TRICH and KARAI. Use of most adapted lines could be used directly as varieties. Using them as donors for wide or specific adaptability with selection in the target environment offers the best opportunity for widening the genetic base of coastal salinity and alkalinity stress tolerance and development of adapted genotypes. Highly stable genotypes can improve the rice productivity in salt-affected areas and ensure livelihood of the resource poor farming communities.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
M. Kumar Raju
,
P. Sugathan
,
T. Seshi Reddy
,
B. Thirumala Rao
,
S. Muralithar
,
R. Singh
,
R. Bhowmik
, and
P. Madhusudhana Rao

Abstract  

The high spin level structure of 73As nucleus is studied by populating the nucleus in 64Ni(12C,p2n)73As reaction. Level scheme is revised significantly. Positive parity sequence is extended up to 33/2+ and a negative parity side band is identified and extended up to high spins 37/2. In addition about 15 new energy levels and a total of about 25 new gamma transitions were placed in the level scheme.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
Y. Gautam
,
A. Sharma
,
S. Sharma
,
K. Rao
,
J. Kumar
,
V. Kumar
,
B. Singh
,
A. Kumar
, and
A. Hedge

Abstract  

Atmospheric tritium activity is measured regularly around Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) since gaseous waste, which contains tritium, is being released through a 145 m high stack at NAPS site. Atmospheric data collected during 2004–2008 shows a large variation of 3H concentration in air, fluctuating in the range of ≤0.2–91.6 Bq m−3. Significantly, higher tritium levels were measured in samples near the site boundary (1.6 km) of NAPS compared to off-site locations. The atmospheric dilution factor was found to be in the range of 1.1 × 10−7–7.3 × 10−7 s m−3. The scavenging ratio of NAPS site was found to be varying from 0.2 × 104 to 14.1 × 104 (Bq m−3 rain water per Bq m−3 air). The inhalation dose to a member of general public at different distances (1.6–30 km) from NAPS site was found to be ranged from 0.08–0.21 μSv year−1.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
R. Ponnuswamy
,
A. Rathore
,
A. Vemula
,
R.R. Das
,
A.K. Singh
,
D. Balakrishnan
,
H.S. Arremsetty
,
R.B. Vemuri
, and
T. Ram

The All India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project of ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research, Hyderabad organizes multi-location testing of elite lines and hybrids to test and identify new rice cultivars for the release of commercial cultivation in India. Data obtained from Initial Hybrid Rice Trials of three years were utilized to understand the genotype × environment interaction (GEI) patterns among the test locations of five different agro-ecological regions of India using GGE and AMMI biplot analysis. The combined analysis of variance and AMMI ANOVA for a yield of rice hybrids were highly significant for GEI. The GGE biplots first two PC explained 54.71%, 51.54% and 59.95% of total G + GEI variation during 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively, whereas AMMI biplot PC1 and PC2 explained 46.62% in 2010, 36.07% in 2011 and 38.33% in 2012 of the total GEI variation. Crossover interactions, i.e. genotype rank changes across locations were observed. GGE biplot identified hybrids, viz. PAN1919, TNRH193, DRH005, VRH639, 26P29, Signet5051, KPH385, VRH667, NIPH101, SPH497, RH664 Plus and TNRH222 as stable rice hybrids. The discriminative locations identified in different test years were Coimbatore, Maruteru, VNR, Jammu, Raipur, Ludhiana, Karjat and Dabhoi. The AMMI1 biplot identified the adaptable rice hybrids viz., CNRH102, DRH005, NK6303, NK6320, DRRH78, NIPH101, Signet5050, BPH115, Bio452, NPSH2003, and DRRH83. The present study demonstrated that AMMI and GGE biplots analyses were successful in assessing genotype by environment interaction in hybrid rice trials and aided in the identification of stable and adaptable rice hybrids with higher mean and stable yields.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
N. Jain
,
G.P. Singh
,
R. Yadav
,
R. Pandey
,
P. Ramya
,
M.B. Shine
,
V.C. Pandey
,
N. Rai
,
J. Jha
, and
K.V. Prabhu

Under limiting water resources, root system response of genotypes to soil-water conditions with enhanced shoot biomass holds the key for development of improved genotypes. Based on the hypothesis of root biomass contribution to higher yields under limiting conditions which might be attributed to the root system plasticity of genotypes, a set of thirty-four genotypes were evaluated under three moisture regimes in a pot experiment for root system traits. Total root dry matter had a positive association with total shoot dry matter (0.35). The identified genotypes showed greater yields and higher stress tolerance index (STI) in an independent field experiment. Root dry matter positively correlated with stress tolerance index on grain yields in both the years. The total variation was partitioned into principal components and GGE biplots were studied to identify the best performing genotypes under the three environments for root dry biomass and related traits. HD2932 appeared to be the winner genotype under different regimes. These results might be helpful in identifying donors for moisture stress tolerance that can be utilized in wheat breeding programmes for accelerated development of varieties with improved root systems.

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The present study aimed to develop and validate an analytical method for determination of marbofloxacin (MAR) in veterinary chewable tablets. The isocratic reversed-phase chromatographic method was developed and validated using a Vertisep®, RP C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5.0 μm). The mobile phase was composed of water–acetonitrile (55:45, v/v) with pH adjusted to 3.0 with ortho-phosphoric acid and a flow rate set at 0.4 mL/min. The proposed method was validated for linearity in a concentration range of 2.5 to 17.5 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.99991. The mean content of MAR found in chewable tablets was 104.40% with RSD below 2%. The accuracy expressed as average recovery of the proposed method was 98.74%, and the precision expressed as relative standard deviation among repeated analysis was 0.55%. The method has adequate sensitivity with detection and quantitation limits of 0.25 and 0.81 μg/mL, respectively. Based on the presented results and according to the ICH and AOAC guidelines on validation of analytical methods, the proposed method was considered precise, accurate with adequate sensitivity, and robust in the MAR quantitative analysis. Therefore, the method can be used in the quality control of chewable veterinary tablets containing MAR.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
B. Kumar
,
K.S. Hooda
,
R. Gogoi
,
V. Kumar
,
S. Kumar
,
A. Abhishek
,
P. Bhati
,
J.C. Sekhar
,
K.R. Yathish
,
V. Singh
,
A. Das
,
G. Mukri
,
E. Varghese
,
H. Kaur
,
V. Malik
, and
O.P. Yadav

Maydis leaf blight (MLB), a serious foliar fungal disease of maize, may cause up to 40% losses in yield. The present studies were undertaken to identify the stable sources of MLB resistance, its inheritance study, and testing of MLB resistance linked markers from diverse background in the Indian adapted tropical maize genotypes. A set of 112 inbred lines were screened under artificially created epiphytotics conditions at three hotspot locations. Analysis across multi-locations revealed significant effects of genotypes and environments, and non-significant effects due to genotypes × environment interaction on disease incidence. A total of 25 inbred lines with stable resistance were identified across multi-locations. Inheritance of resistance was studied in six F1s and two F2s of resistant and susceptible parents. The null hypothesis of segregation of resistance and susceptible for mono and digenic ratios in two F2 populations was rejected by Chi-square test. The non-significant differences among the reciprocal crosses depicted the complete control of nuclear genome for MLB resistance. Partial dominance in F1s and normal distribution pattern in F2s of resistant and susceptible parents suggested polygenic nature of MLB resistance. Correlation studies in F2 populations exhibited significant negative correlation between disease score and days to flowering. Five simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers, found associated to MLB resistance in different studies were unable to differentiate amongst MLB resistance and susceptible parents in our study. This emphasizes the need of fine mapping for MLB resistance in Indian germplasm. The identified stable sources of resistance and information on inheritance study can be used further in strengthening of resistance breeding against MLB.

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