The evaporation of octanoic (caprylic) acid was investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis (temperature range: 300–600 K)
under a nitrogen dynamic atmosphere (heating rates: 0.16, 0.31, 0.63, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 K min−1). Kinetic plots for a zero-order process were constructed based on the Arrhenius equation. The activation energy for the
evaporation process was calculated via both the Arrhenius plot and Vyazovkin’s isoconversional model-free method.
The most widely identified degradation process suffered by calcium aluminate cement (CAC) is the so-called conversion of hexagonal
calcium aluminate hydrate to cubic form. This conversion is usually followed by an increase in porosity determined by the
different densities of these hydrates and the subsequent loss of strength. Mixes of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) and silica
fume (SF) or fly ash (FA) represent an interesting alternative for the stabilization of CAC hydrates, which might be attributed
to a microstructure based mainly on aluminosilicates. This paper deals with the microstructure of cement pastes fabricated
with mixtures CAC-SF and CAC-FA and its evolution over time. Thermal analysis (DTA/TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and mid-infrared
spectroscopy (FTIR) have been used to assess the microstructure of these formulations.
The objective of this study is to determine the influence of partial substitutions of Ti4+ by isovalent Hf4+ in the perovskite-type crystalline structure of PbTiO3. Different samples over the whole composition range (0 ≤ x≤1) in the PbTi1-xHfxO3 family have been prepared. Phase transitions have been determined by thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimeter:
DSC) and complex impedance spectroscopy (IS) over a wide temperature range. As a consequence of the cation replacement the
changes that take place in the different phase transition temperature are reported. By both techniques, thermal analysis and
electrical characterization, it is shown that for all compositions prepared there is only one phase transition in a temperature
range between 230 and 460 °C. With these results and the previously known crystalline structure of pure PbTiO3 and PbHfO3 perovskites, the phase diagram of the PbTi1-xHfxO3 family is presented including a morphotropic phase transition at x ~ 0.5.
The anthocyanin pattern of 18 grape cultivars grown under the same conditions during several years, and also the anthocyanin pattern of wines made from them, using the same winemaking technology, has been studied by HPLC. Chromatographic data indicate that every grape cultivar present a characteristic anthocyanin pattern, that is reflected in wines made from them. Two-way ANOVA and variance component analysis point out that the anthocyanin pattern of grapes and wines is mostly affected by the genetic characteristics of grape cultivars. Moreover, the use of multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis and discriminant analysis) allows the classification of grapes and wines into several groups on the basis of their anthocyanin pattern, and shows that the anthocyanin pattern of young single-cultivar wines is related to the anthocyanin pattern of grapes used for winemaking. Results may be relevant for using the anthocyanin pattern of young single-cultivar wines as an analytical tool to determine the grape cultivar used to make them.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of some food additives used in foods on cold tolerance of Clostridium perfringens at pH close to neutral.Maximal concentrations recommended for foods of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sodium nitrite, monosodium glutamate, or mixtures of those were added to cultures and their effects on C. perfringens tolerance to 10 °C were evaluated. The effect of a previous shock at 28 °C was also determined. Growth of C. perfringens was not inhibited by the substances examined. Sodium nitrite, applied at maximal permitted concentrations, increased C. perfringens survival at 10 °C. Mixtures of GRAS compounds had either no clear effect, or increased tolerance to 10 °C. A pre-shock (28 °C) of the cultures treated with sodium benzoate, sodium nitrite or monosodium glutamate increased survival and stimulated growth of the cultures treated at 10 °C.We conclude that the addition of these compounds including sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sodium nitrite and monosodium glutamate to cultures of C. perfringens can influence their cold tolerance. In some cases, the substances that would normally eliminate microorganisms at lower pH, can increase tolerance of this bacterium, permitting survival at low temperatures.
Radiotracer experiments are presented on 241Am uptake in natural aqueous suspensions from a reservoir and a river in SW Spain. The uptake was followed by measuring the
241Am activity in water using a liquid scintillation technique. Experimental results revealed a three-step kinetics in the uptake,
which could be satisfactorily described by a model of two parallel and reversible reactions followed by a consecutive weakly-reversible
reaction. This paper also studies the effects of the concentration of suspended matter and the specific surface area on the
kinetic transfer coefficients.
In the present work a study was made for determining colour intensities using as luminous non-monochromatic source the Cherenkov
emission produced in the walls of a glass capillary which acts as luminous source itself inside of a coloured solution to
be evaluated. The reproducibility of this method has been compared with the spectrophotometric assay; the relative errors
of both analytical methods have been calculated for different concentrations of congo red solution in the range of minimal
error, according to Ringbom's criterion. The sensitivity of this analytical method has been studied for the two β-emitters
In this work a method used conventionally for ICP-MS measurements have been modified and readapted for the determination of
actinides (U and Th isotopes) in refractory samples by alpha-spectrometry. The method is based in a total dissolution of the
sample by alkali fusion. In the first stages of our studies, we try to digest refractory samples by leaching with aqua regia
followed by the application of a liquid–liquid solvent extraction process for the sequential isolation of the uranium and
thorium isotopes from the dissolved fraction. These actinides were finally electroplated in stainless steel discs and measured
in an alpha-spectrometer using PIPS detectors. On the other hand, gamma measurements were carried out in aliquots of the same
samples in order to check the results produced by alpha spectrometry. Clear disagreements were found between the results obtained
by both techniques. This problem was solved by the application of an alkali fusion technique where a total dissolution of
the sample is performed. It was found in addition that the alkali fusion is easily applicable, less time-consuming, needs
less reagents than leaching and it does not require sophisticated apparatus to be executed. In this paper the whole procedure
for U and Th determination in refractory samples by alpha-spectrometry with alkali fusion is presented and validated.
Starting from some satisfactory preliminary studies, the possibility of identifying single cations in solution has been investigated, by means of ionic exchange with a highly acidic resin (Dowex 50W) and a subsequent study by differential thermal analysis of the same resin. A catalogue of DTA curves has been prepared with 19 ionic forms of the said resin, and it has been found that the DTA curves are sufficiently distinguishable and reproducible to suggest an eventual analytical use in more complex cases of solutions containing more than one cationic species.
A discussion on the influence of grafted polar groups (succinic anhydride and succinil-fluorescein) in glass transition behaviour of atactic polypropylene is shown in this work, on the basis of the reaction conditions used to obtain the modified polymers, kind and amount of grafted groups, and the degradation processes which may take place. The Box-Wilson experimental design methodology for two independent variables (reactant concentration to obtain the modified polymer) has been used to follow variations in glass transition temperatures. The existence of undesired degradation processes is considered as independent of the grafting reactions, and the model predictions seem to agree with this latter.