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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
M. López
,
M. Blanco
,
A. Vazquez
,
J. Ramos
,
A. Arbelaiz
,
N. Gabilondo
,
J. Echeverría
, and
I. Mondragon

Abstract  

The curing kinetics of nanocomposites based on phenolic resol cured with triethylamine (TEA) containing different amounts of organic montmorillonite was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry. Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) model-free kinetics has been applied to correlate the dynamic cure behaviour in the presence of modified montmorillonite. The effect in the curing of the use of different clay modifiers has also been studied. A commercial clay with hydroxyl groups (Cloisite 30B) and a customized montmorillonite (PheMMT) whose reactive groups induce condensation reactions with the resol matrix have been used. Strong dependency of activation energy on apparent conversion has been observed for all compounds.

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Abstract  

The catalytic behaviour of ceria, zirconia and ceria–zirconia mixed oxides in the temperature-programmed degradation of toluene and n-hexane was analysed by means of evolved gas analysis (mass spectrometry). Pure cerium oxide resulted the most active catalyst in the oxidation of both compounds. This fact revealed the crucial role of the surface oxygen species in the decomposition of this type of hydrocarbons. The low affinity of CeO2 for H2O and CO2, the major oxidation products, may be also responsible for the observed highly active catalytic behaviour.

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Abstract  

This work is a ‘historical’ revision of the evolution of an experimental procedure developed by Prof. Lisardo Nez and his research group TERBIPROMAT to study the sustainability and the soil health state. From the very beginning, in 1993, the microbial activity was the main bioindicator selected to analyse the ‘soil health state’. For this reason, a microcalorimetric technique was used lately to analyse the influence of different human activities such as reforestations, agricultural exploitation or pollution on the microbial activity in different soils. Microcalorimetry is the main scientific technique used in this research to follow the stimulation of the microbial activity by addition of glucose. The data obtained were complemented by a study of physical, chemical and biological parameters of soil and allowed to follow the microbial activity in soils of Galicia (Spain) along the year. The final results, still in revision, will be helpful in establishing a data basis for real maps of the ‘health state’ of different soils. Such maps could be used to design processes that help us to decide how we should exploit soils ensuring their sustainability.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Lisardo Núñez-Regueira
,
J. Rodríguez-Añón
,
J. Proupín-Castiñeiras
,
Maria Villanueva-López
, and
O. Núñez-Fernández

Abstract  

Microcalorimetry was used to study the seasonal evolution over one year of the microbial activity in a humic-eutrophic Cambisol soil as a function of its forest cover. The study was carried out on three soils with identical origin but covered with different forest species: pine, eucalyptus, and a typical Atlantic-humid riverside forest. Some other physical, chemical and biological properties and environmental parameters, mainly humidity and environmental temperature, were considered to analyze their influence on soil microbial activity. The study was performed using a microcalorimeter Thermal Analysis Monitor 2277 in which the experiments were carried out with 1 g soil samples treated with 1.25 mg glucose g–1 soil. From the measured results it follows that pine forest soil is the least productive of the three, as it generates an average heat of 2.7 vs. 5.9 J g–1 generated by the eucalyptus forest soil and 3.1 J g–1 generated by the riverside forest soil. These results are dependent on the remaining physical, chemical and biological features analysed and because of this, pine forest soil, with a pH value 3.3 in spring, shows a small capacity to maintain a stable microbial population which is the lowest of the three (0.079108 to 0.46108 microorganisms g–1 soil) while riverside soil microbial population is in the range from 7.9108 to 17108 microorganisms g–1 soil.

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Calorimetric measurements of the heat of adsorption of CO2 on zeolites with variable content of mono- and divalent cations lead to common conclusions. High initial heats (up to 120 kJ·mol−1 for NaA), generally associated with a slow and activated rate of adsorption, are found for high contents of Na+, Li+ or Ca2+. They are attributed to a limited number of chemisorption sites (0.3 per α cage in NaA).

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
J. Pascual
,
F. Corpas
,
J. López-Beceiro
,
M. Benítez-Guerrero
, and
R. Artiaga

Abstract  

A Spanish red mud was thermally characterized. Chemical and mineralogical composition were determined by XRF and XRD.The thermal events observed in the range from room temperature to 1300°C were related to the sample composition. The first mass loss step was related to free water content, while many of the other processes were related to dehydration processes. It was found that most of the decomposition reactions of hydrohematite, ferrihydrite, aluminogoethite, boehmite, silicates and carbonates were strongly overlapping. It was also explained the formation of silicates and calcium titanate, which presence was confirmed at 1000°C by XRD.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
J. Muntasell
,
M. Barrio
,
J. Font
,
D. López
,
J. Tamarit
,
M. Diarte
,
J. Guion
,
M. Teisseire
,
N. Chanh
, and
Y. Haget
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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
F. J. Díez
,
C. Alvarińo
,
J. López
,
C. Ramírez
,
M. J. Abad
,
J. Cano
,
S. García-Garabal
, and
L. Barral
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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
J. Murillo-Hernández
,
S. López-Ramírez
,
J. Domínguez
,
C. Duran-Valencia
,
I. García-Cruz
, and
J. González-Guevara

Abstract  

A survey on the effect of ionic liquids (ILs) over the thermal stability of a heavy Mexican oil was performed. ILs used were based on [Cnim]+ and [Cnpyr]+ organic cations with FeCl4 metal anion. Mixtures of heavy crude oil (HCO) with ILs show three oxidation zones: low temperature oxidation (LTO), full deposition (FD) and high temperature oxidation (HTO). Thermal stability and mass loss decrease in the LTO zone but increase in the FD and HTO zones for every ILs used. The activation energy of the oxidation is influenced by the ILs in the HTO zone. It decreases when increasing the size of the organic radical substitute in the cation of the ILs while it increases with the presence of hydroxyl groups. The influence of electronic structure and reactivity indexes are rationalized to understand the variations of activation energy obtained of the reaction systems. Among all cations used, cation-3 (IL-3) shows the greater value of HOMO-LUMO gap as well as the lower activation energy.

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Summary Non-isothermal thermogravimetric data were used to evaluate the Arrhenius parameters (activation energy and the pre-exponential factor) of the combustion of two carbonaceous materials, selected as diesel soot surrogates. The paper reports on the application of model-free isoconversional methods (Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Kissinger methods) for evaluating the activation energy of the combustion process. On the other hand, by means of the compensation relation between E and lnA, which was established by the model-dependent Coats-Redfern method, the value of the pre-exponential factor was estimated from the known value of the model-independent activation energy.

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