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An attempt is outlined for the compilation of an integrated and harmonized stratified soil physical database serving hydrologic modeling, as the basis of estimating soil hydraulic parameters in the unsaturated zone. Due to the appropriate spatial and thematic resolution and data processing status, the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System (DKSIS) and Hungarian Agrogeological Database (HAD) were chosen as pedological and agrogeological data sources for describing the soil physical properties in the unsaturated zone. The DKSIS contains legacy soil data (as hy, pH, salt, OM, CaCO 3 content, etc.) in finely stratified resolution (3–5 soil layers within 1.5–2.0 m), but lacks particle size data. HAD has a coarser stratification (8–15 layers within 8–10 m) with detailed particle size data. The five-cleft FAO texture classification can serve as an interface in their joint application. The particle size and hy data pairs from the existing Hungarian Soil Monitoring (TIM) network made it possible to define the relation between FAO texture class vs. hy value, and based on the HYPRES database each FAO texture class can be characterized by typical Mualem-van Genuchten parameter sets (Wösten et al., 1999). The compiled, harmonized database characterizes the distinguished soil and sediment layers – with a thickness of at least 10 cm – for a 690 km 2 large model area, describing their thickness and texture classes to the depth of the permanent groundwater level, in every single square kilometer cell of the model area. The compiled database is indispensable in the model simulation based analysis of regional water management problems like drought, flood and inland inundation.

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Abstract

This work aimed to evaluate the effect of ethylene treatment on ripening of 1-MCP treated pear after 6 months of cold storage. Pear treated with gaseous 1-MCP at 625–650 ppb for 24 h at 0 °C was stored at 0 °C for 6 months with normal air, and treated groups were exposed to 100 ppm ethylene at 20 °C for 24 h. After that, samples were kept at 0, 10, and 15 °C for 2 weeks. Stiffness, chlorophyll fluorescence, ethylene and CO2 production of fruit were investigated during 2 weeks. Application of ethylene resumed the ripening of pear after long term storage. The results showed that fruit treated with ethylene achieved more homogeneous surface colour in comparison with non ethylene treated pears. In addition, the ethylene and carbon dioxide production of ethylene treated pears had higher values than that of control. The ethylene treatment could accelerate the softening of pear. Temperature also has significant effect on ripening during storage. This study found that ethylene treatment could accelerate the normal ripening of 1-MCP treated pears.

Open access

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding the role of nutrition in the development of children’s physical, mental, and motor abilities.

Materials/methods

Examination of visiting nurse reports on feeding habits and perceived developmental delays in infants at 1 year of age between 2010 and 2015.

Results

Between 0 and 6 months of age the lowest number of new cases (4.4/100,000) identified by health screenings can be anticipated among the infants feeding exclusively with breastmilk. We find a similarly low number of identifiable new cases among infants nourished with breastmilk where it is mixed with other nutrients (4.7 new cases) while the most cases of delayed motor development can be anticipated among infants nourished with infant formulae (48.4 new cases).

Conclusions

The role of nutrition in infants’ motor development is vital, especially breastfeeding. Regular health status checks of infants are inevitably required for the adoption of higher-level health-policy decisions which may induce projects, programmes, and strategies aimed at the improvement of health. Thorough documentation and continuous collection of the pertinent data is likewise requisite.

Open access

An 11-year-old, Hungarian half-bred stallion was presented with a history of mixed left hindlimb lameness of 6 months duration. Subchondral bone cyst of the medial femoral condyle and injury of the medial meniscus were diagnosed. Osteochondral autograft transplantation (mosaic arthroplasty) was performed, taking grafts from the less weight-bearing medial border of the medial femoral trochlea of the affected limb, and transplanting them into the cyst during arthroscopy. The lameness was evaluated prior to and one year after the operation with a motion analysis system during treadmill exercise. Considerable improvement of the lameness and the clinical signs as well as successful transplantation of the grafts, and a new hard joint cartilage surface of the medial femoral condyle could be detected during follow-up arthroscopy. Osteochondral autograft transplantation seems to bee a possible alternative for treating subchondral cystic lesions of the medial femoral condyle in horses. A new technique for the surgical treatment of a subchondral cystic lesion of the medial femoral condyle in the horse is described.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
A. Beregi
,
Cs. Székely
,
L. Békési
,
Judit Szabó
,
V. Molnár
, and
K. Molnár

Radiodiagnostic methods have not been used previously for studying the anatomy and diseases of the swimbladder of freshwater fish species. In this study, the radiographic anatomy of the swimbladder and species-related differences in swimbladder structure were studied on plain radiographs taken of 12 Hungarian fish species of major economic importance. Changes observed by radiography were also studied by conventional parasitological methods. The radiodiagnostic method reported here appears to be a useful complement to diagnostic examinations that have been based merely on dissection so far. It enables evaluation of the pathological lesions in live condition, without causing damage to the fish.

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Abstract  

The purpose of this investigation was to further elucidate calorimetric properties of cartilage samples from femoral head necrosis and osteoarthritis from live surgeries. The natural course of this disease is one of steady progression with eventual collapse of the femoral head, followed by secondary osteoarthritis in the hip joint. All samples showed a clear denaturation peak on the calorimetric curve. Cartilage obtained from necrotic femoral head required the lowest amount of energy for decomposition. The use differential scanning calorimetry as part of thermal analysis was a reliable method for differentiating.

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Abstract  

An analytical procedure was developed for the alpha-spectrometric determination of uranium (238U, 235U, 234U) and transuranium isotopes (239+240Pu, 244Cm) in liquid radioactive wastes (sludges, evaporation residues) of low and medium activity from the VVER-440 reactor of the nuclear power plant in Paks, and in waste waters to be released into the environment. Radioactive sludge samples were separated to a liquid phase and a wet suspension (solid) phase by centrifuging, and the two phases were treated and analyzed separately, in different ways. A sample preparation procedure based on chemical separation was worked out for the isolation of the alpha-emitting components of radioactive evaporation residues which were saturated with boric acid. To the separate determination of the low activity alpha-emitting isotopes appearing in waste waters to be released into the environment, a microvawe concentration technique was applied. The accuracy of the results obtained using the above chemical separation and alpha-spectrometry was tested in the framework of the international U. S. DOE EML Quality Assessment Program.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
D. Székely
,
L. Szalóki-Dorkó
,
M. Stéger-Máté
,
B. Szabó-Nótin
,
J. Ivanics
, and
J. Monspart-Sényi

The beetroot is typically on the table in winter in form of pickles or juice, but for its nutritional values it would deserve more common consumption. Its curative effect in great part is due to the several vitamins, minerals, and compounds with antioxidant activity. But the division of biological active compounds is very different in the parts of the root. Based on our results, we could compare the differences between the morphology and some inner contents (soluble solid content, colour, betacyanin, betaxanthin, and polyphenol contents, antioxidant activity, and some flavonoids) of two beetroot cultivars. The results of the morphological investigations showed that the ‘Cylindre’ cultivar had more favourable crop parameters than the ‘Alto F1’ cultivar. In the ‘Cylindre’ cultivar the polyphenol content and the antioxidant capacity were significantly higher than in the ‘Alto F1’ cultivar. By determination of the betanin contents of the investigated beetroots, our results showed both betacyanin and betaxanthin contents were higher in the ‘Cylindre’ cultivar. The chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, the cumaric acid have been identified based on the peaks of HPLC in the studied beetroot cultivars.

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Important differences have been reported in several countries about the level of concern in connection with food additives. In order to better understand the consumer preferences related to foodstuffs containing food additives, five hypotheses were tested with the help of a choice-based conjoint analysis. The study was performed in three European countries (Hungary, Romania, and Spain) having different risk perceptions concerning food additives. Two “model foodstuffs” were involved in the analysis: pre-packed sliced cheese (natural image) and chips (artificial image). For the creation of the conjoint cards, three attributes were selected: “preservatives” (natural/artificial), “packaging gases” (contains/does not contain) and “price” (average based on market data/+10%/+20%). Results were collected via Internet simultaneously and a total of 500 valid questionnaires were received in case of pre-packed cheese and 468 regarding chips. In the analysed countries “preservatives” had an outstanding importance — mainly in Hungary and Romania —, while “packaging gases” got lower importance during the shopping intention. “Natural preservatives” very positively contributed to the choosing of both pre-packed sliced cheese and chips. High level of willingness to pay was not observed, as well as the “price” was less important factor than the additives. Comparison of the data from three countries showed notable differences, which can determine the direction of the product planning and development.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
E. Várvölgyi
,
T. Werum
,
L. Dénes
,
J. Soós
,
G. Szabó
,
J. Felföldi
,
G. Esper
, and
Z. Kovács

Time consuming and expensive methods have been applied for detection of coffee adulteration based on the literature. In the present work, an optical method (vision system) and the application of an electronic tongue is proposed to reveal the addition of barley in different proportion to coffee in ground and brewed forms. In a range of 1 to 80% (w/w) Robusta coffee was blended with roasted barley. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) accomplished on vision system image data showed a good discrimination of the adulterated samples. The results of Polar Qualification System (PQS) data reduction method revealed even small differences in the right barley content order by point method approach. With Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression the amount of barley in Robusta was predicted with high R2 (0.996) and relatively low RMSEP (∼2%) values in case of vision system data processing. Considering electronic tongue measurements, PCA results showed a good discrimination of samples with higher barley concentration. Misclassification was found in the low concentrated area by Lienar Discriminant Analgsis (LDA). To obtain an accurate model for barley content prediction in coffee, the most sensitive sensor signals were used to apply PLS regression successfully (R2=0.97, RMSEP=3.99% (w/w)).

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