Authors:Michael E. El-Kommos, Niveen A. Mohamed, Hassan R.H. Ali, and Ahmed F. Abdel Hakiem
A new spectrodensitometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of a quaternary mixture of antihyperlipidemics containing niacin, atorvastatin, and bezafibrate with either ezetimibe or simvastatin. Densitometric analysis was carried out using high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) silica gel 60G F254 plates as the stationary phase. The plates were developed with benzene—ACN—n-butanol (7:2:1, v/v) + 1.50%, v/v, glacial HOAC in absorbance mode at 242 nm. The retention factors of niacin, atorvastatin, bezafibrate, ezetimibe, and simvastatin were 0.17, 0.38, 0.51, 0.65, and 0.66, respectively. The method was validated according to the United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (USP 31—NF 26) and the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Linearity ranges of all studied drugs were found to be in the range of 15–650 ng band−1 with correlation coefficient values of 0.9975 or more. Limits of detection and quantitation were 5–50 and 15–150 ng band−1, respectively. Upon applying polynomial regression to the same concentration ranges of standard solutions of all investigated drugs as well as spiked bezafibrate samples to rabbit plasma, correlation coefficient values had greatly improved. The proposed method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of the studied antihyperlipidemic drugs in plasma and in their pharmaceutical formulations. The developed method was utilized to study the pharmacokinetic behavior of bezafibrate and its drug—drug interaction with atorvastatin in rabbit males. This study has proven the increased myotoxicity risk upon coadministration of atorvastatin with bezafibrate.
Authors:A. Awudu, A. Faanu, E. Darko, G. Emi-Reynolds, O. Adukpo, D. Kpeglo, F. Otoo, H. Lawluvi, R. Kpodzro, I. Ali, M. Obeng, and B. Agyeman
Knowledge of radioactivity levels in human diet is of particular concern for the estimation of possible radiological hazards
to human health. However, very few surveys of radioactivity in food have been conducted in Ghana. The natural radionuclides
226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K were measured in the foodstuffs using gamma ray spectrometry. All samples were found to contain high 40K content in the range 87.77–368.50 Bq kg−1. The maximum concentration of 228Th and 40K were found in cassava to be 14.93 ± 3.86 and 368.50 ± 19.20 Bq kg−1, respectively. The total annual committed effective dose was estimated to be 4.64 mSv. The daily intake of radionuclides
from food consumption reveals that cassava and plantain are the highest contributors, while millet is the lowest. The daily
radionuclide intake from the foodstuffs consumed by the general public was 411.32 Bq and the daily internal dose resulting
from ingestion of the radionuclides in the foodstuffs was 0.01 mSv. The radionuclide concentrations were comparable with those
reported from other countries.
Authors:Mohammed S. A. Khedr, Mona F. Ali, Abdullah M. A. Kamel, and Manal A. A. El-Ghanam
This research will shed light on studying a terrazzo pavement in Prince Mohamed Ali Museum (the case study). The authors used visual inspection, stereo microscope, USB microscope, XRPD analysis, and SEM.EDX to identify its components, deterioration aspects and execution techniques. The XRPD and SEM.EDX results revealed that Portland cement was used in the three layers of terrazzo because of the detection of Hatrurite, Alite, Anorthite, Albite, Aragonite, etc. Many pigments were used in the topping terrazzo layer as; Goethite, Greenalite, Hematite, Azurite and Magnetite. The divider strips were made of brass alloy and the topping layer chips were prepared from basalt, marble and sea shells.
Authors:Ali Konaté, René Dembélé, Assèta Kagambèga, Issiaka Soulama, Wendpoulomdé A. D. Kaboré, Emmanuel Sampo, Haoua Cissé, Antoine Sanou, Samuel Serme, Soumanaba Zongo, Cheikna Zongo, Alio Mahamadou Fody, Nathalie K. Guessennd, Alfred S. Traoré, Amy Gassama-Sow, and Nicolas Barro
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is important bacteria of children’s endemic and epidemic diarrhea worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of DEC isolated from stool samples collected from children with acute diarrhea living in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. From August 2013 to October 2015, stool samples were collected from 315 children under 5 years of age suffering from diarrhea in the “Centre Médical avec Antenne Chirurgicale (CMA)” Paul VI and the CMA of Schiphra. E. coli were isolated and identified by standard microbiological methods, and the 16-plex PCR method was used to further characterize them. Four hundred and nineteen (419) E. coli strains were characterized, of which 31 (7.4%) DEC pathotypes were identified and classified in five E. coli pathotypes: 15 enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (48.4%), 8 enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (25.8%) with 4 typical EPEC and 4 atypical EPEC, 4 enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) (12.9%), 3 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) 9.67%, and 1 enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) 3.2%. The use of multiplex PCR as a routine in clinical laboratory for the detection of DEC would be a useful mean for a rapid management of an acute diarrhea in children.
Authors:Ali Konaté, René Dembélé, Nathalie K. Guessennd, Fernique Konan Kouadio, Innocent Kouamé Kouadio, Mohamed Baguy Ouattara, Wendpoulomdé A. D. Kaboré, Assèta Kagambèga, Haoua Cissé, Hadiza Bawa Ibrahim, Touwendsida Serge Bagré, Alfred S. Traoré, and Nicolas Barro
The emergence and persistence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) causing acute diarrhea is a major public health challenge in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance phenotypes of DEC isolated from stool samples collected from children less than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea living in Ouagadougou/Burkina Faso. From August 2013 to October 2015, this study was carried out on 31 DEC strains of our study conducted in “Centre Médical avec Antenne Chirurgicale (CMA)” Paul VI and CMA of Schiphra. DEC were isolated and identified by standard microbiological methods and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used to further characterize them. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done based on the disk diffusion method. DEC isolates were high resistant to tetracycline (83.9%), amoxicillin (77.4%), amoxicillin clavulanic acid (77.4%), piperacillin (64.5%), and colistin sulfate (61.3%). The most resistant phenotype represented was the extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype (67.7%). Aminoglycosides were 100% active on enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). All the DEC isolates exhibited absolute (100%) sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. Monitoring and studying the resistance profile of DEC to antibiotics are necessary to guide probabilistic antibiotic therapy, especially in pediatric patients.
Authors:Abbas Al-Hdabi, Mohammed K. Fakhraldin, Rasha A. Al-Fatlawy, and Tawfek Sheer Ali
Ignition of waste paper sludge at elevated temperatures to produce electricity in power generation plants utilizing fluidized bed combustion generates paper sludge ash. Due to the high concentration of lime and gelignite in paper sludge ash, it is expected that it will play a vital role as a cementitious material. This paper investigates the use of paper sludge ash to improve the mechanical properties of the granular materials, which are suitable to subbase course for road and building constructions. Also, a comparison study with the use of Portland cement as an additive to granular materials has been covered. The mechanical properties were evaluated by conducting the California bearing ratio test for the two adopted methods. Moreover, the compressive strength of the samples using paper sludge ash and cement are investigated. In accordance to the California bearing ratio test, 4% paper sludge ash was indicated as the optimum ash content at which the California bearing ratio value increased by 173% and 111% in comparison with untreated material and 6% cement, respectively. On the other hand, and by means of the compressive strength, the granular materials with 4% paper sludge ash has compressive strength higher than those with 6% cement.