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Abstract

Background and aims

Problematic exercise (PE) has mainly been assessed with self-report instruments. However, summarized evidence on the reliability of the scores derived from such instruments has yet to be provided. The present study reports a reliability generalization meta-analysis of six well-known self-report measures of PE (Commitment to Exercise Scale, Compulsive Exercise Test, Exercise Addiction Inventory, Exercise Dependence Questionnaire, Exercise Dependence Scale, and Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire).

Methods

Pooled effect sizes were computed using a random-effect model employing a restricted maximum likelihood estimation method. Univariable and multivariable meta-regressions analyses were employed for testing moderator variables.

Results

Data retrieved from 255 studies (741 independent samples, N = 254,174) identified three main groups of findings: (i) pooled alpha values that, ranging from 0.768 to 0.930 for global scores and from 0.615 to 0.907 for subscale scores, were found to be sensitive to sociodemographic and methodological characteristics; (ii) reliability induction rates of 47.58%; and (iii) the virtually non-existent testing of the assumptions required for the proper applicability of alpha. Data unavailability prevented the provision of summarized reliability estimates in terms of temporal stability.

Discussion

These findings highlight the need to improve reliability reporting of the scores of self-reported instruments of PE in primary studies. This implies providing both prior justification for the appropriateness of the index employed and reliability data for all the subpopulation of interest. The values presented could be used as a reference both for comparisons with those obtained in future primary studies and for correcting measurement-related artefacts in quantitative meta-analytic research concerning PE.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Adrian Paterna
,
Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez
,
Jose M. Aguilar-Parra
,
Carlos Salavera
,
Zsolt Demetrovics
, and
Mark D. Griffiths

Abstract

Background and aims

The present study aimed to synthesize existing quantitative evidence on the relationship between problematic smartphone use (PSU) and academic achievement with a focus on quantifying its magnitude and examining its potential moderators.

Methods

Eligible studies were searched for up to February 10, 2023 in six different databases (i.e., MEDLINE, Current Contents Connect, PsycINFO, Web of Science, SciELO, and Dissertations & Theses Global). Studies were considered eligible if they provided information derived from self-report instruments that allowed statistical calculation of the relationship between PSU and academic achievement. Pooled effect sizes (r) were computed using a random-effects model. Meta-regressions were conducted to test the influence of study-level moderators on the relationship of interest. Influence analyses and a three-parameter selection model (3PSM) were conducted to examine the robustness of the results and publication bias, respectively.

Results

A total of 33 effect sizes from 29 studies (n = 48,490) were retrieved. Results showed a small effect size (r = −0.110), which tended to be larger in samples consisting of students from elementary and middle schools.

Discussion and Conclusions

Findings from the present study contribute to the understanding of a potential determinant of decreased academic achievement by providing evidence that PSU may be one of them.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
William Van Gordon
,
Edo Shonin
,
Thomas J. Dunn
,
Javier Garcia-Campayo
,
Marcelo M. P. Demarzo
, and
Mark D. Griffiths

Background and aims

Workaholism is a form of behavioral addiction that can lead to reduced life and job satisfaction, anxiety, depression, burnout, work–family conflict, and impaired productivity. Given the number of people affected, there is a need for more targeted workaholism treatments. Findings from previous case studies successfully utilizing second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs) for treating behavioral addiction suggest that SG-MBIs may be suitable for treating workaholism. This study conducted a controlled trial to investigate the effects of an SG-MBI known as meditation awareness training (MAT) on workaholism.

Methods

Male and female adults suffering from workaholism (n = 73) were allocated to MAT or a waiting-list control group. Assessments were performed at pre-, post-, and 3-month follow-up phases.

Results

MAT participants demonstrated significant and sustained improvements over control-group participants in workaholism symptomatology, job satisfaction, work engagement, work duration, and psychological distress. Furthermore, compared to the control group, MAT participants demonstrated a significant reduction in hours spent working but without a decline in job performance.

Discussion and conclusions

MAT may be a suitable intervention for treating workaholism. Further controlled intervention studies investigating the effects of SG-MBIs on workaholism are warranted.

Open access

Background and aims

The nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short Form (IGDS-SF9) is brief and effective to evaluate Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) severity. Although its scores show promising psychometric properties, less is known about whether different groups of gamers interpret the items similarly. This study aimed to verify the construct validity of the Persian IGDS-SF9 and examine the scores in relation to gender and hours spent online gaming among 2,363 Iranian adolescents.

Methods

Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis were used to examine the construct validity of the IGDS-SF9. The effects of gender and time spent online gaming per week were investigated by multigroup CFA and Rasch differential item functioning (DIF).

Results

The unidimensionality of the IGDS-SF9 was supported in both CFA and Rasch. However, Item 4 (fail to control or cease gaming activities) displayed DIF (DIF contrast = 0.55) slightly over the recommended cutoff in Rasch but was invariant in multigroup CFA across gender. Items 4 (DIF contrast = −0.67) and 9 (jeopardize or lose an important thing because of gaming activity; DIF contrast = 0.61) displayed DIF in Rasch and were non-invariant in multigroup CFA across time spent online gaming.

Conclusions

Given the Persian IGDS-SF9 was unidimensional, it is concluded that the instrument can be used to assess IGD severity. However, users of the instrument are cautioned concerning the comparisons of the sum scores of the IGDS-SF9 across gender and across adolescents spending different amounts of time online gaming.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Orsolya Király
,
Mark D. Griffiths
,
Daniel L. King
,
Hae-Kook Lee
,
Seung-Yup Lee
,
Fanni Bányai
,
Ágnes Zsila
,
Zsofia K. Takacs
, and
Zsolt Demetrovics

Background and aims

Empirical research into problematic video game playing suggests that overuse might cause functional and psychological impairments for a minority of gamers. Therefore, the need for regulation in the case of video games (whether governmental or self-imposed) has arisen but has only been implemented in a few countries around the world, and predominantly in Asia. This paper provides a systematic review of current and potential policies addressing problematic gaming.

Methods

After conducting a systematic search in the areas of prevention, treatment, and policy measures relating to problematic Internet and video game use, papers were selected that targeted problematic gaming policies (N = 12; six in English and six in Korean). These papers served as the basis of this review.

Results

Policies were classified into three major groups: (i) policy measures limiting availability of video games (e.g., shutdown policy, fatigue system, and parental controls), (ii) measures aiming to reduce risk and harm (e.g., warning messages), and (iii) measures taken to provide help services for gamers. Beyond the attempt to classify the current and potential policy measures, the authors also tried to evaluate their efficiency theoretically and (if data were available) empirically.

Discussion and conclusions

Overall, it appears that although several steps have been taken to address problematic video game playing, most of these steps were not as effective as expected, or had not been evaluated empirically for efficacy. The reason for this may lie in the fact that the policies outlined only addressed or influenced specific aspects of the problem instead of using a more integrative approach.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Chung-Ying Lin
,
Maryam Ganji
,
Halley M. Pontes
,
Vida Imani
,
Anders Broström
,
Mark D. Griffiths
, and
Amir H. Pakpour

Background and aims

Given the growing epidemiological research interest concerning Internet addiction, brief instruments with a robust theoretical basis are warranted. The Internet Disorder Scale (IDS-15) is one such instrument that can be used to quickly assess the Internet addiction in an individual. However, only two language versions of the IDS-15 have been developed. This study translated the IDS-15 into Persian and examined its psychometric properties using comprehensive psychometric testing.

Methods

After ensuring the linguistic validity of the Persian IDS-15, 1,272 adolescents (mean age = 15.53 years; 728 males) completed the IDS-15, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short Form (IGDS9-SF), and the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), Rasch models, regression analysis, and latent profile analysis (LPA) were carried out to test the psychometric properties of the Persian IDS-15.

Results

Both CFA and Rasch supported the construct validity of the Persian IDS-15. Multigroup analysis in CFA and differential item functioning in Rasch indicated that male and female adolescents interpreted the IDS-15 items similarly. Regression analysis showed that the IDS-15 correlated with IGDS9-SF and BSMAS (ΔR 2 = .12 and .36, respectively) is stronger than the DASS (ΔR 2 = .03–.05). LPA based on IDS-15 suggests three subgroups for the sample. Significant differences in depression, anxiety, IGDS9-SF, and BSMAS were found among the three LPA subgroups.

Conclusion

The Persian IDS-15 has robust psychometric properties as evidenced by both classical test theory and Rasch analysis.

Open access

Background

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was introduced in the DSM-5 as a way of identifying and diagnosing problematic video game play. However, the use of the diagnosis is constrained, as it shares criteria with other addictive orders (e.g., pathological gambling).

Aims

Further work is required to better understand IGD. One potential avenue of investigation is IGD’s relationship to the primary reinforcing behavioral functions. This study explores the relationship between duration of video game play and the reinforcing behavioral functions that may motivate or maintain video gaming.

Methods

A total of 499 video game players began the online survey, with complete data from 453 participants (85% white and 28% female), were analyzed. Individuals were placed into five groups based on self-reported hours of video gaming per week, and completed the Video Game Functional Assessment – Revised (VGFA-R).

Results

The results demonstrated the escape and social attention function were significant in predicting duration of video game play, whereas sensory and tangible were not significant.

Conclusion

Future implications of the VGFA-R and behaviorally based research are discussed.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Jon Arcelus
,
Walter Pierre Bouman
,
Bethany Alice Jones
,
Christina Richards
,
Susana Jimenez-Murcia
, and
Mark D. Griffiths

Background

There is anecdotal clinical evidence that transgender people use the online world – such as forums and online video gaming – for the purpose of experiencing their gender identity in a safe, non-threatening, non-alienating, non-stigmatizing, and non-critical environment.

Aims

To describe gaming behavior, degree of problematic gaming behavior and associated factors with problematic gaming in a comparatively large group of transgender people accessing transgender health services.

Methods

Every individual referred to a national transgender health service in the United Kingdom during a 12-month period was invited to complete a series of questionnaires to measure gaming behavior, interpersonal functioning, severity of autistic features, and anxiety and depressive symptoms.

Results

A total of 245 people agreed to participate in the study with 154 (62.9%) describing themselves as current gamers. Gaming behavior in the transgender population attending transgender health services was prevalent, but less than 1% of them presented with clinical scores for Internet Gaming Disorder, with no differences according to gender. Problematic gaming behavior was associated with general interpersonal problems, depression, and young age.

Discussion and conclusions

Transgender people who engage in problematic gaming behavior are younger, and present with high interpersonal problems, and depression, which can affect a successful transition. In view of the high levels of gaming activity in this population games that are designed to address these psychological problems may be well received by transgender people.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Beáta Bőthe
,
Marc N. Potenza
,
Mark D. Griffiths
,
Shane W. Kraus
,
Verena Klein
,
Johannes Fuss
, and
Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract

Background

Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) is included in the eleventh edition of The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) as an impulse-control disorder.

Aims

The aim of the present work was to develop a scale (Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder Scale–CSBD-19) that can reliably and validly assess CSBD based on ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines.

Method

Four independent samples of 9,325 individuals completed self-reported measures from three countries (the United States, Hungary, and Germany). The psychometric properties of the CSBD-19 were examined in terms of factor structure, reliability, measurement invariance, and theoretically relevant correlates. A potential threshold was determined to identify individuals with an elevated risk of CSBD.

Results

The five-factor model of the CSBD-19 (i.e., control, salience, relapse, dissatisfaction, and negative consequences) had an excellent fit to the data and demonstrated appropriate associations with the correlates. Measurement invariance suggested that the CSBD-19 functions similarly across languages. Men had higher means than women. A score of 50 points was found as an optimal threshold to identify individuals at high-risk of CSBD.

Conclusions

The CSBD-19 is a short, valid, and reliable measure of potential CSBD based on ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines. Its use in large-scale, cross-cultural studies may promote the identification and understanding of individuals with a high risk of CSBD.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Patients with schizophrenia are known to use potentially addictive psychoactive substances as self-medication and to ease psychological distress. Other potentially addictive behaviors such as online gaming are also used to self-medicate and ease psychological distress. However, the role of online gaming and problematic gaming (in the form of internet gaming disorder [IGD]) has not previously been investigated for patients with schizophrenia facing distress.

Methods

One hundred and four participants diagnosed with schizophrenia were recruited and completed a number of psychometric scales including the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSPS), Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS-SF9), Self-Stigma Scale-Short (SSS-S), and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-21).

Results

The results showed significant negative associations between PSPS, IGDS-SF9, and DASS-21, and significant positive correlations between the IGDS-SF-9, SSS-S and DASS-21. Moreover, IGD did not mediate the association between self-stigma and depression. However, IGD significantly mediated the association between self-stigma and anxiety, and the association between self-stigma and stress. In addition, (i) age and self-stigma were significant predictors for IGD; (ii) social function and self-stigma were significant predictors for depression; (iii) social function, self-stigma, and IGD were significant predictors for anxiety; and (iv) self-stigma and IGD were significant predictors for stress.

Conclusion

The findings suggest that online gaming may be a coping strategy for individuals with schizophrenia with psychological stress and self-stigma and that for some of these individuals, their gaming may be problematic.

Open access