Food partitioning among coexisting species in different habitats remains an important research topic in trophic ecology. In this work, we combined carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios and stomach content analyses to investigate differences in diet and niche overlap of two congeneric juvenile mullet species (Mugil curema and Mugil liza) coexisting in a marine surf-zone and an estuarine zone in southern Brazil (29oS). These habitats have contrasting levels of food availability, especially in terms of prey diversity, with higher microalgae diversity in the estuary than in the marine surf-zone. In these contrasting conditions, we predicted that both mullet species will have (a) higher niche overlap and smaller niche breadth at the marine surf-zone due to the common exploration of highly abundant surf-zone diatoms and (b) lower niche overlap and higher niche breadth inside the estuary due to selective feeding on more diverse food resources. Isotope niche areas (measured as standard ellipse areas) were higher in the estuary (6.10 and 6.18) than in the marine surf-zone (3.68 and 3.37) for both M. curema and M. liza, respectively. We observed an overlap of 52% in isotopic niches of both species in the marine surf-zone and none in the estuary. We also found contrasting patterns in the diet composition between species according to the habitat. At the marine surfzone, diatoms of the classes Bacillariophyceae and Coscinodiscophyceae dominated (> 99%) the food content of both mullet species. In contrast, green algae, cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates and flagellates comprised the diet of both species in the estuary. These results could be explained by spatial differences in food availability (especially regarding diversity of microalgae) between both habitats. At the marine site, both species explored the most abundant microalgae available (mostly the surf-zone diatom Asterionellopsis cf. guyunusae and fragments of Coscinodiscus), whereas in the estuary both species shifted their diets to explore the greater diversity of microalgae resources. Overall, our findings revealed that niche partitioning theory could not fully predict changes in breadth and overlap of food niches of estuarine dependent fish species with complex life cycles encompassing marine to estuarine systems with contrasting food availabilities.
There are two main theories explaining offspring sex biases in polygynous mammals. Trivers and Willard (1973) argue that mothers with greater reproductive resources should invest in the sex with the greater variance in reproductive success, usually sons. In contrast, because daughters in many polygynous mammals stay with their mother and compete with her for food, Local Resource Competition theory (e.g. Clark, 1978; Silk, 1983) predicts that the mothers with the greatest reproductive resources should invest in daughters. We investigated the strategy of sex allocation of a captive, outdoor population of 139 mouflon mothers, Ovis musimon, kept in a game state. A complex picture emerged in which, despite weight and body condition being correlated with age in female mouflons, mothers lambed more daughters with increasing age but also, within a given age, gave birth to more sons with increasing weight. Results may be useful in game management aimed at increasing the recruitment or quality o f males in managed populations.
This work shows the results obtained to determine the noise in the baseline of a specially designed Tian Calvet-Type adsorption
microcalorimeter. The results show that noise levels vary from 0.5 to 10 μV, which were evaluated varying the electrical work
and the micro calorimeter surrounding temperature. Relationships can be seen between the variables employed in the observation
of stability, temperature, potency levels and generated noise.
In this work, it is described an innovative heat flux micro calorimeter Tian-Calvet type designed to measure adsorption heats
and reactions as well as adsorption isotherms. It consists in an adsorption instrument for volumetric gases, which is coupled
to the micro calorimeter. The changes in the pressure are monitored by means of high sensitivity and high precision pressure
transducers. The micro calorimeter has thermo elements that work by a Seebeck effect, in a twin cells system. The cells are
inside a box in which the temperature can be adjusted from 77 to 300 K. The sensitiveness of the calorimeter is established
by applying a perfectly known electric work. The results corresponding to the electric calibration, the base line stability
determination and the time constant in the equipment are shown.
The effect of silica
nanofiller on the glass transition of a polyurethane was studied by DSC. The
pristine polymer exhibits a single glass transition at about –10C.
Uniform SiO2 spheres with different average sizes and narrow size distributions
were synthesized in solution by the Stber method . Both the effects
of silica content within the polymer and particle size were investigated,
as well as two different surface treatments. Scanning electron microscopy
(SEM) clearly confirms the presence of the particles within the polymer matrix,
showing uniform distribution and no agglomeration. While shifting of the glass
transition has been reported by many authors, we have not seen any noticeable
shift in this polymer. Surprisingly, we found no relevant effects when either
increasing the filler content or changing the particle size. Different amounts
of particles with average diameters of 175, 395 and 730 nm did not affect
the glass transition temperature of the pristine polymer.
behaviour of an epoxy resin cured with an amine-POSS was studied using differential
scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The kinetic
of polymerization reaction and the thermal degradation have been analyzed
based on an iso-conversional model. The obtained results showed that the activation
energies of both processes depend on the degree of conversion.
The178m2Hf nucleus, with its long half-life (31 y) and high-spin isomeric state (16+) is desired for new and exotic nuclear physics studies. The Los Alamos Radioisotope Program irradiated a kilogram of natural
tantalum at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility in early 1981. After fifteen years of decay, this target was ideal for the
recovery of178m2Hf. There was more than a millicurie of178m2Hf produced during this irradiation and there has been a sufficient period of time for most of the other hafnium radioisotopes
to decayed away. Traditionally, separation techniques for recovering hafnium isotopes from tantalum targets employ solvent
extractions with reagents that are considered hazardous. These techniques are no longer condoned because they generate a mixed-waste
(radioactive and hazardous components) that can not be treated for disposal. In this paper we describe a new and unique procedure
for the recovery of hafnium radioisotopes from a highly radioactive, proton irradiated, tantalum target using reagents that
do not contribute a hazardous waste component.
A new method is proposed for the separation of gadolinium(III) and lanthanum(III) in aqueous medium by nanofiltration combined
with a complexation step. First DTPA was chosen as ligand for a selective Gd(III)/La(III) complexation. Having investigated
the influence of three factors (pH, temperature and amount of ligand) for the selective complexation of DTPA towards Gd(III)
and La(III), the system is then combined with a nanofiltration separation process to remove 92% of initial Gd(III) and only
12% of initial La.
Aerosols samples in near-surface air of Granada (Spain) were collected on a weekly basis. The seasonal 210Pb and 7Be concentrations were determined during the five-year period, from October 1993 to September 1997. The elements, despite their different origin and their different distribution throughout the atmosphere, present the same seasonal variation. There was a tendency for a maximum during the summer season and a minimum during fall and/or winter. In this work, the concentration of 7Be and 210Pb and meteorological data have been used in order to determine the periods of the potential radioactive pollution. This study, also, shows that the deposition of 7Be occurs primarily by precipitation except during the investigation periods where precipitation was scarce and irregular.