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Leaf senescence is a notably important trait that limits the yield and biomass accumulation of agronomic crops. Therefore, determining the chromosomal position of the expression sequence tags (ESTs) that are associated with leaf senescence is notably interesting in the manipulation of leaf senescence for crop improvement. A total of 32 ESTs that were previously identified during the delaying leaf senescence stage in the stay-green wheat cultivar CN17 were mapped to 42 chromosomes, a chloroplast, a mitochondrion, and a ribosome using in silico mapping. Then, we developed 19 pairs of primers based on these sequences and used them to determine the polymorphisms between the stay-green cultivars (CN12, CN17, and CN18) and the control cultivar MY11. Among the 19 pairs of primers, 5 pairs produced polymorphisms between the stay-green cultivar and the non-stay-green control. Further studies of Chinese Spring nullisomic-tetrasomics show that JK738991 is mapped to 3B, JK738983 is mapped to 5D, and JK738989 is mapped to 2A, 4A, and 3D. The other two ESTs, JK738994 and JK739003, were not assigned to a chromosome using the Chinese Spring nullisomic-tetrasomics, which indicates that these ESTs may be derived from rye DNA in the wide cross. In particular, the ESTs that produce polymorphisms are notably useful in identifying the stay-green cultivar using molecular marker-assisted selection. The results also suggest that the in silico mapping data, even from a comparison genomic analysis based on the homogeneous comparison, are useful at some points, but the data were not always reliable, which requires further investigation using experimental methods.

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Red coleoptile is an easily observed agronomic trait of wheat and has been extensively studied. However, the molecular mechanism of this trait has not yet been revealed. In this study, the MYB gene TaMYB-D1 was isolated from the wheat cultivar ‘Gy115’, which possesses red coleoptiles. This gene resided at the short arm of the homoelogous group 7 chromosomes. TaMYB-D1 was the only gene expressed in the coleoptiles of ‘Gy115’ and was not expressed in ‘Opata’ and ‘CS’, which have uncoloured coleoptiles. Phylogenetic analysis placed TaMYB-D1 very close to ZmC1 and other MYB proteins regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. The encoded protein of TaMYB-D1 had an integrated DNA binding domain of 102 amino acids and a transcription domain with 42 amino acids, similar to the structure of ZmC1. Transient expression analysis in onion epidermal cells showed that TaMYB-D1 was located at the plant nucleus, which suggested its role as a transcription factor. The expression of TaMYB-D1 was accompanied with the expression of TaDFR and anthocyanin biosynthesis in the development of the coleoptile of ‘Gy115’. Transient expression analysis showed that only TaMYB-D1 induced a few ‘Opata’ coleoptile cells to synthesize anthocyanin in light, and the gene also induced a colour change to red in many cells with the help of ZmR. All of these results suggested TaMYB-D1 as the candidate gene for the red coleoptile trait of ‘Gy115’.

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High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method coupled with radical reaction for screening active ingredients from perennial fujimoto bean whole herb was established. The active ingredients, present in perennial fujimoto bean whole herb, possess scavenging effects towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide, peroxy radical, and hydroxyl radical. The radical scavenging abilities of these active ingredients were evaluated based on the relative peak areas in the HPLC chromatogram. The results indicate that potent antioxidants are present in the anhydrous methanol extract of perennial fujimoto bean whole herb. Based on HPLC-MS analysis, it was found that the scavenging ability can be mostly attributed to the presence of three compounds: cyanidin-3-o-β-d-glucopyranoside, troxerutin, and rutin. The structures were identified based on the MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data. Free radical scavenging activity decreased in the following order: troxerutin > rutin > cyanidin-3-o-β-d-glucopyranoside.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Z.L. Li, H.Y. Li, G. Chen, X.J. Liu, C.L. Kou, S.Z. Ning, Z.W. Yuan, M. Hao, D.C. Liu, and L.Q. Zhang

Seven Glu-A1 m allelic variants of the Glu-A1 m x genes in Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum, designated as 1Ax2.1 a, 1Ax2.1 b, 1Ax2.1 c, 1Ax2.1 d, 1Ax2.1 e, 1Ax2.1 f, and 1Ax2.1 g were characterized. Their authenticity was confirmed by successful expression of the coding regions in E. coli, and except for the 1Ax2.1 a with the presence of internal stop codons at position of 313 aa, all correspond to the subunit in seeds. However, all the active six genes had a same DNA size although their encoding subunits showed different molecular weight. Our study indicated that amino acid residue substitutions rather than previously frequently reported insertions/deletions played an important role on the subunit evolution of these Glu-A1 m x alleles. Since variation in the Glu-A1x locus in common wheat is rare, these novel genes at the Glu-A1 m x can be used as candidate genes for further wheat quality improvement.

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Abstract  

The characterization of different sized TiO2 (25 nm, 80 nm, and 155 nm) was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the micro-distributions of TiO2 in the olfactory bulb of mice after nasal inhalation were investigated by microbeam SRXRF mapping techniques. The results show that TiO2 particles can be translocated to the olfactory bulb through the olfactory nerve system after inhalation. The distributions of Fe, Cu, and Zn in the olfactory bulb were also studied.

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Present research on prebiotics focuses on either polysaccharides or polyphenols. This study compared the individual and combined impact of polysaccharide, quercetin, and gallic acid (GA) treatment on three human faecal strains. In vitro pure culturing and correlation analysis confirmed that the growth of both beneficial microbe B. longum subsp. longum (0.695, 0.205: R2, slope, respectively) and pathogenic C. perfringens (0.712, 0.085: R2, slope, respectively) increased due to polysaccharide treatment, and only GA treatment would inhibit C. perfringens (0.789, –0.165: R2, slope, respectively) growth. In vivo studies also revealed that genome copies of Bifidobacterium increased and C. perfringens decreased in the faeces, when a blend of the three nutrients rather than single polysaccharide or polyphenols were fed to rats. These data suggested that combined prebiotic treatment improved human faecal strain composition better than single treatment.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: G. Chen, M.H. Zhang, X.J. Liu, J.Y. Fu, H.Y. Li, M. Hao, S.Z. Ning, Z.W. Yuan, Z.H. Yan, B.H. Wu, D.C. Liu, and L.Q. Zhang

Premature termination codons (PTCs) are an important reason for the silence of highmolecular- weight glutenin subunits in Triticum species. Although the Glu-A1y gene is generally silent in common wheat, we here isolated an expressed Glu-A1y gene containing a PTC, named 1Ay8.3, from Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (AmAm, 2n = 2x = 14). Despite the presence of a PTC (TAG) at base pair positions 1879–1881 in the C-terminal coding region, this did not obviously affect 1Ay8.3 expression in seeds. This was demonstrated by the fact that when the PTC TAG of 1Ay8.3 was mutated to the CAG codon, the mutant in Escherichia coli bacterial cells expressed the same subunit as in the seeds. However, in E. coli, 1Ay8.3 containing the PTC expressed a truncated protein with faster electrophoretic mobility than that in seeds, suggesting that PTC translation termination suppression probably occurs in vivo (seeds) but not in vitro (E. coli). This may represent one of only a few reports on the PTC termination suppression phenomenon in genes.

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