Enniatins (ENs), produced by
species are a group of mycotoxins with antimicrobial, insecticidal (GROVE & POPLE, 1980) and phytotoxic activities. PCR based assays were applied for detecting enniatin-producing strains of
Fusarium avenaceum, F. poae
isolated from wheat seeds originated of 30 geographic localities of Hungary. All
strains and except two of all
strains gave positive signal to
primers as well as all
isolates were positive to
primers indicating the ability to produce ENs. This is a first report of the enniatin producing ability of
species associated to wheat in Hungary.
Climate change affects the occurrence of fungi and their mycotoxins in foods and feeds. A shift has recently been observed in the presence of aflatoxin producer Aspergillus spp. in Europe, with consequent aflatoxin contamination in agricultural commodities including maize in several European countries that have not faced with this problem before, including, e.g. Northern Italy, Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia and Romania. Although aflatoxin contamination of agricultural products including maize is not treated as a serious threat to Hungarian agriculture due to climatic conditions, these observations led us to examine the mycobiota of maize kernels collected from Hungarian maize fields. Using a calmodulin sequence-based approach, A. flavus isolates have been identified in 63.5% of the maize fields examined in 2009 and 2010, and 18.8% of these isolates were found to be able to produce aflatoxins above 5 μg kg−1 on maize kernels as determined by ELISA, HPLC-FL, HPLC-MS analyses and SOS-Chromotest. These data indicate that aflatoxin producing Aspergilli are present in Hungarian agricultural fields, consequently climate change with elevated temperatures could lead to aflatoxin contamination of Hungarian agricultural products, too.