Sudan is suffering from harsh summers, but most of the modern buildings in urban areas are not compatible with the recent and future climate phenomena. Application of cooling devices is relatively expensive and therefore beyond reach. The main objective of this research is to give an overview on the overheating problem and the thermal comfort in buildings. A dynamic energy simulation has been performed for a selected case study using Design Builder Code. The results show that the share of discomfort hours for a typical modern building is 78% and 33% above 26 °C and 32 °C per year, respectively, but after using a combination of different ventilation, shading and building materials options the discomfort hours can be reduced to 77% and 26%, respectively.
Authors:Mohammed S. A. Khedr, Mona F. Ali, Abdullah M. A. Kamel, and Manal A. A. El-Ghanam
This research will shed light on studying a terrazzo pavement in Prince Mohamed Ali Museum (the case study). The authors used visual inspection, stereo microscope, USB microscope, XRPD analysis, and SEM.EDX to identify its components, deterioration aspects and execution techniques. The XRPD and SEM.EDX results revealed that Portland cement was used in the three layers of terrazzo because of the detection of Hatrurite, Alite, Anorthite, Albite, Aragonite, etc. Many pigments were used in the topping terrazzo layer as; Goethite, Greenalite, Hematite, Azurite and Magnetite. The divider strips were made of brass alloy and the topping layer chips were prepared from basalt, marble and sea shells.
Authors:Abbas Al-Hdabi, Mohammed K. Fakhraldin, Rasha A. Al-Fatlawy, and Tawfek Sheer Ali
Ignition of waste paper sludge at elevated temperatures to produce electricity in power generation plants utilizing fluidized bed combustion generates paper sludge ash. Due to the high concentration of lime and gelignite in paper sludge ash, it is expected that it will play a vital role as a cementitious material. This paper investigates the use of paper sludge ash to improve the mechanical properties of the granular materials, which are suitable to subbase course for road and building constructions. Also, a comparison study with the use of Portland cement as an additive to granular materials has been covered. The mechanical properties were evaluated by conducting the California bearing ratio test for the two adopted methods. Moreover, the compressive strength of the samples using paper sludge ash and cement are investigated. In accordance to the California bearing ratio test, 4% paper sludge ash was indicated as the optimum ash content at which the California bearing ratio value increased by 173% and 111% in comparison with untreated material and 6% cement, respectively. On the other hand, and by means of the compressive strength, the granular materials with 4% paper sludge ash has compressive strength higher than those with 6% cement.