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  • Author or Editor: A. Goswami x
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The interaction between salinity (8 and 12 dS m −1 ) and three levels (40, 80 and 120 kg ha −1 ) of different forms of nitrogen (NO 3 , NH 4 + and NO 3 + NH 4 + ) were studied in Brassica juncea cv. RH-30. The plants were salinized with 8 and 12 dS m −1 at 35 and 55 days after sowing. The relative water content (RWC), water potential (Ψ w ) and osmotic potential (Ψ s ) exhibited a marked decline under salinity stress. The application of the combined form (NO 3 + NH 4 + ) of nitrogen (120 kg ha −1 ) considerably improved the water status and mitigated the adverse effect of salinity on growth. The salinity-induced osmotic effect led to stomatal closure and caused a substantial reduction in net photosynthetic rate (P N ), stomatal conductance (g s ) and transpiration rate (E) at the pre-flowering and flowering stages (45 and 65 DAS). Salinity effects were considerably moderated by additional nitrogen supply, which varied with the source of nitrogen, the level of salinity/fertilizer and the stage of plant growth. The inhibition in photosynthesis was relatively greater in ammonium-fed (NH 4 + ) than in nitrate-fed (NO 3 ) plants, while the transpiration rate was relatively lower in nitrate-fed plants grown either with or without saline water irrigation. The nitrate form of nitrogen @ 120 kg ha −1 proved best in alleviating the adverse effect of salinity on photosynthesis and transpiration at both the growth stages.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
R. Goswami
,
R.U. Zunjare
,
S. Khan
,
V. Muthusamy
,
A. Baveja
,
A.K. Das
,
S.K. Jaiswal
,
J.S. Bhat
,
S.K. Guleria
, and
F. Hossain

Vitamin-A deficiency is a major health concern. Traditional yellow maize possesses low provitamin-A (proA). Mutant crtRB1 gene significantly enhances proA. 24 experimental hybrids possessing crtRB1 allele were evaluated for β-carotene (BC), β-cryptoxanthin (BCX), lutein (LUT), zeaxanthin (ZEA), total carotenoids (TC) and grain yield at multi-locations. BC (0.64–17.24 µg/g), BCX (0.45–6.84 µg/g), proA (0.86–20.46 µg/g), LUT (9.60–31.03 µg/g), ZEA (1.24–12.73 µg/g) and TC (20.60–64.02 µg/g) showed wide variation. No significant genotype × location interaction was observed for carotenoids. The mean BC (8.61 µg/g), BCX (4.04 µg/g) and proA (10.63 µg/g) in crtRB1-based hybrids was significantly higher than normal hybrids lacking crtRB1-favourable allele (BC: 1.73 µg/g, BCX: 1.29 µg/g and proA: 2.37 µg/g). Selected crtRB1-based hybrids possessed 33% BC and 40% BCX compared to 6% BC and 5% BCX in normal hybrids. BC showed positive correlation with BCX (r = 0.90), proA (r = 0.99) and TC (r = 0.64) among crtRB1-based hybrids. Carotenoids didn't show association with grain yield. Average yield potential of proA rich hybrids (6794 kg/ha) was at par with normal hybrids (6961 kg/ha). PROAH-13, PROAH-21, PROAH-17, PROAH-11, PROAH-23, PROAH-24 and PROAH-3 were the most promising with >12 µg/g proA and >6000 kg/ha grain yield. The newly identified crtRB1-based hybrids assume significance in alleviating malnutrition.

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