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  • Author or Editor: A. Gupta x
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A novel camptothecin-producing endophytic fungus viz., Entrophospora infrequens was isolated from an important Indian medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida . The present study reports evaluation of bioactivities of two novel extracts viz., chloroform (CEEI) and methanolic (MEEI) extracts of Entrophospora infrequens with respect to their immunomodulatory potential in vitro and in vivo (in Balb/c mice). The endophyte E. infrequens was found to synthesize camptothecin, which tested positive in CEEI. The immunomodulatory potential of CEEI and MEEI was compared with standard camptothecin (CPT). Doses of the chloroform extract (CEEI) ranging from 12.5–100 mg/kg body weight, significantly (p<0.05) stimulated the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in a dose-dependent manner. MEEI on the other hand significantly (p<0.05) stimulated the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction (by nearly 80%), plaque forming cell (PFC) assay (33%), phagocytic response (38%) and haemagglutination antibody (HA) titre [IgM by 79.07% and IgG by 62.05%] at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg body weight. The present study is the first report of the immunomodulatory potential of this neoteric camptothecin-producing endophyte from Nothapodytes foetida .

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Background and aims

The potential link between social casino gaming and online gambling has raised considerable concerns among clinicians, researchers and policy makers. Unfortunately, however, there is a paucity of research examining this potential link, especially among young adults. This represents a significant gap given young adults are frequently exposed to and are players of social casino games.

Methods

To better understand the potential link between social casino games and online gambling, we conducted three focus groups (N = 30) at two large Canadian Universities with college students who were avid social media users (who are regularly exposed to social casino games).

Results

Many participants spontaneously mentioned that social casino games were a great opportunity to build gambling skills before playing for real money. Importantly, some participants expressed a belief that there is a direct progression from social casino gaming to online gambling. Conversely, others believed the transition to online gambling depended on a person’s personality, rather than mere exposure to social casino games. While many young adults in our focus groups felt immune to the effects of social casino games, there was a general consensus that social casino games may facilitate the transition to online gambling among younger teenagers (i.e., 12–14 yr olds), due to the ease of accessibility and early exposure.

Discussion

The results of the present research point to the need for more study on the effects of social casino gambling as well as a discussion concerning regulation of social casino games in order to minimize their potential risks.

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