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  • Author or Editor: A. R. Thompson x
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Mixed population of different biotypes of C. arvense can be found in the cereal fields in Eastern Europe. Three biotypes were identified taxonomically: var. arvense; var. horridum, and var. vestitum. Out of the three identified biotypes, only var. arvense showed more sensitivity to chlorsulfuron, while the other two biotypes were less sensitive. There was no difference in the germination behaviour of the biotypes, thus all varieties can be present on the field at the same time. The less sensitive biotypes have a thicker cuticle and less stoma on the leaves than the more sensitive one. There is no significant difference between sensitive and resistant biotypes in absorption and translocation of the 14C chlorsulfuron and florasulam. Sensitivity of the ALS-enzyme was significantly reduced in the resistant biotypes, although the enzyme still functions. Since that cereal fields in Eastern Europe are infested with C. arvense biotypes with different susceptibilities to chlorsulfuron, it is important to consider resistance management when selecting herbicides. Selection pressure for ALS resistance can be reduced by including other herbicides with an alternative mode of action; as tank mixes, premixes, or separate applications.

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