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  • Author or Editor: A. Yusof x
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Abstract  

The distribution of heavy and trace elements in coastal sediments was obtained by elemental analysis techniques such as INAA and GFAAS. The elemental concentrations were expressed in terms of enrichment factors derived by the elemental ratioing method, and evaluation was done by comparison to those found in SRMs. The associated sources of polluting elements were traced from their distribution patterns and, where applicable, related to the surrounding activities. Sample to sample variation was also taken into account to establish any correlative factors.

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Abstract  

Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were employed in the determination of heavy metal concentrations in water, plant and sediment samples to assess the extent of heavy metal pollution in a river system which is located within an industrial zone. Elemental concentrations of As, Pb, Hg, Cr, Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn were measured in the samples. Statistical analysis was performed on the data obtained to look for trends in the pollution pattern of these elements on the river system. The trend in concentrations of heavy metals pollution in water samples is in the order of Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > As > Pb > Hg > Cd, whereas in plants the order is Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > As > Hg > Cd and in sediments Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > As > Hg.

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Abstract  

Inorganic Cr(III) and Cr(VI) have contrasting biological, geochemical and toxicology effects. Cr(III) is considered as an essential species for the proper functioning of living organisms but Cr(VI) is toxic for the biological systems. An off-line speciation method using Chelex-100 has been practiced for speciation to Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from surface waters of rivers. The underlying principal of this separation method is based on the ability of cationic Cr(III) to be retained by the resin Chelex-100 while the anionic Cr(VI) remained in the sample matrices. The efficiency of this technique was improved by studying the effect of resin pH. Quantitative determination using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was carried out after the separation to determine the total Cr and Cr(VI) in the liquid matrices. The precision and the accuracy of the quantitative analysis were evaluated by using standard reference material NRCC CASS-2 Intercomparison of INAA and ICP-MS results were determined. The quantity of inorganic Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in the surface water of rivers in the vicinity of industrial areas was investigated together with the determination of the physical properties of the water rivers during sampling.

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Abstract  

A simple and sensitive method for the determination of some metalloids and heavy metals in water samples is presented. The method is based on the preconcentration of the attachment of chelating functionalities with metalloids and toxic metals irreversibly and targeted towards toxic metals adsorbed on modified activated carbon, activated carbon and red soil particles at pH 3.0–9.0±0.2, followed by quantitative determination using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), on the absorbers. Attachment results from attraction that may be physical, chemical, electrical, or a combination of all three. The efficient removal of metalloids and toxic metals, especially arsenic, chromium and mercury is anticipated. The adsorption capacity of the chemically modified activated carbon materials was evaluated for the above mentioned metalloid and toxic metal ions in the presence of iron ions and simulated water samples. Red soil particles containing iron was utilized in the control of oxidation-reduction reaction with metalloids and toxic metals. The preconcentration of the elements of interest on red soil particles, activated carbon and modified activated carbon at different depths, pH and oxidation states was investigated. The results obtained showed good agreement with certified values giving relative errors of less than 10%.

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Abstract  

The concentrations of iodine in fresh waters are known to be within the range of 0.5 to 35 ng·ml−1, much lower than in oceanic waters. The iodine concentrations, particularly that of129I which is significant from the radiation safety aspect, in public drinking waters have to be specified in order to verify the required level before distribution for domestic use. A modified version of an established method was used in the adsorption of iodine, iodate, total inorganic iodine and charcoal-adsorbable iodine using activated carbon prepared from oil palm kernel wastes. A thorough investigation of the physical properties of the activated carbon was carried out to determine its viability as an adsorbent for volatile species such as iodine. The iodine species were preconcentrated from water samples collected from wells in villages and from water intake points along rivers. The quantitative analysis of the species adsorbed was done by irradiating the activated charcoal loaded with the respective species in a neutron flux of 5.1·1012 n·cm−2·s−1 from a TRIGA MkII, nuclear reactor. Recovery experiments using spiked samples was done to provide quality assurance controls.

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Abstract  

The assessment of environmental pollution of the coastal areas of the Malaysian Peninsula was done by analyzing the contents of the heavy and trace elements in the bivalves blood clams (Anadara granosa) and green mussels (Perna viridis) and sediments at twenty-two sampling stations to look for prevailing trends. Heavy and trace elements analyzed in this study were As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Se and Zn. Two techniques, namely the neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were used in the quantitative determination of the heavy metals while Marine Sediment Reference Material (BCSS) and Lobster Hepatopancreas (TORT-1) provided the certified reference materials in the quality assurance control. The potential use of these bivalves as suitable bio-indicators was evaluated from correlation tests based on the concentrations of heavy and trace elements in the sediment-metals system to those in the bivalves.

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Abstract  

A new filtering column has been developed on the covalent attachment of chelating functionalities to simple, highly hydrophilic adsorbent material, which can then complex heavy metal ions irreversibly and targeted towards toxic metals removal. The capacity of the chemically modified sorbent (modified charcoal) materials used in this work was evaluated for the above mentioned heavy metal ions in the presence of iron ions and simulated water samples. The methods are based on preconcentrations of the elements of interest on activated carbon and zirconium loaded activated carbon using specific conditions of pH and oxidation states followed by a final determination by neutron activation analysis (NAA). It has been investigated that zirconium loaded activated carbon is able to adsorb As (V), Se (VI), Cr (VI) and Hg (II) at any pH while activated carbon is able to adsorb As (III), Se (IV), Cr (III) and Hg(I) at higher pH.

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Abstract  

Dissolved inorganic arsenic species were determined in natural waters and selected marine species. Prior to irradiation by NAA samples were preconcentrated and the As(III) and As(V) species separated by APCDT-chloroform extraction. Marine samples were digested by microwave heating. Interpretation of data was achieved by comparing the ratio of As(III)/As(V) in the samples and correlating it with the prevailing environmental conditions.

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Abstract  

Column studies were performed to evaluate the performance of modified zeolite-Y with ion Fe (zeolite-FeY) in removing As(III), As(V), Se(IV) and Se(VI) from groundwater. The removal capacities for zeolite-FeY was carried out on arsenic and selenium species in aqueous solution by co-precipitation technique with DBDTC-Pp complex in the pH range of 1.5–2.5 followed by the neutron activation analysis (NAA) using a TRIGA-MkII reactor with an average flux of 2.1 × 1012 neutrons cm−2 s−1 and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique as comparison. The accuracy between the results obtained from both techniques were compared and evaluated.

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