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## Results of mathematics ‘test zero’ at Budapest University of Technology and Economics in 2010

Pollack Periodica
Author:
Aniko Csakany

Freshmen admitted by the Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BUTE) were required to take a new first test, called ‘test zero’ in mathematics in September 2010. Among the 3300 participants there were hundreds of students majoring in a variety of fields such as engineering (civil, mechanical, chemical, environmental, transportation or electrical), computer sciences, or economics and management. The test covered the topics of high school mathematics that are assumed to be of higher importance. The need for the test as part of the course requirements in first semester mathematics was generated by the current inconsistencies of the admission system of Hungarian higher education.This paper pictures the story of mathematics ‘test zero’. The results of all participants are presented and attention is called to typical mistakes. Some of the most important and interesting conclusions are highlighted. Actions taken by professors and instructors of BUTE to help students with a weaker background to reach their mathematical potential are reviewed.

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## Displacement based moment distribution method for semi-rigid frames

Pollack Periodica
Author:
Anikó Csébfalvi

In this paper, a fully analytical approach is proposed for framed structures with semi-rigid beam-to-column connections. Traditionally, the analysis of frame structures is based on the assumption that all connections are either frictionless pinned or fully rigid. Recent limit state specifications permit the concept of semi-rigid connection of the individual frame members in the structural design. In a frame with semi-rigid joints the loading creates both a bending moment and a relative rotation between the connected members. The moment and relative rotation are related acting through a constitutive law, which depends on the joint properties. In this study, a simplified beam-to-column connection is applied which was specified in EC3 Annex J. Results are presented for non-sway and sway frames under different load conditions.

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## Modeling method in the architectural planning of reliable complex health-care systems

Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Diána Meskó
and
Anikó Csébfalvi

During the architectural planning of modern, complex, block-structured, large-area located, but still landscape-harmonized health-care buildings, the key is the optimal positioning of the blocks and functions, simultaneously ensuring the most-effective backup-paths for any single transportation route failure in the buildings to speed up the operation, reduce the maintenance costs and especially to improve the satisfaction of the patients. Mathematical statements are to be solved with multiple serious challenges when formulating the positioning problem with resilience to the buildings for any single failure. An innovative graph representation referred as link doubling is presented where Minimal cost multi commodity flow problems could be solved.

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## An improved hybrid method for the resource-constrained project scheduling problem with discounted cash flows

Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Anikó Csébfalvi
and
Blanka Láng

This paper presents an improved hybrid method for the resource-constrained project scheduling problem with discounted cash flows. In the proposed primary-secondary approach a makespan minimal resource-constrained schedule for which the net present value measure is maximal is searched. In the original approach a very simple rule was applied to eliminate the hidden resource conflicts. In the improved algorithm this simple rule is replaced by a secondary criterion specific mixed integer linear programming formulation. Linear approximation is used, and the improved algorithm exploits the fact that a small mixed integer linear problem can be solved within reasonable time. To speed up this solution a simple but efficient pre-processing step was inserted to repair the resource usage conflicts.

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## Beporzók mint fontos ökológiai és gazdasági biztonsági tényezők

#### Pollinators as important ecological and economical safety factors

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki

Összefoglalás.

A növényi beporzást sok esetben segítik a beporzók, hozzájárulva a termés- és magképzéshez, szaporodáshoz. Ezzel a beporzók ökológiai és gazdasági értelemben is kiemelt fontosságú szerepet játszanak az emberek életében, környezeti, élelmezési, anyagi és egészségi biztonságuk vonatkozásában egyaránt. Az állati beporzás a zárvatermő virágos növények 87%-át érinti, ami a szárazföldi vegetációt alapjaiban meghatározza. Ebbe a körbe tartozik a termesztett növények háromnegyede is, így a mezőgazdasági termelésben játszott szerepük mind mennyiségi, mind minőségi értelemben kiemelkedő. Közvetlen kihatással vannak az emberi egészségre, létfontosságú vitaminok, ásványi anyagok biztosításával. A beporzók megőrzése, hanyatló trendjeik megállítása ezért az emberiség elemi érdeke, mind hazai, mind globális vonatkozásban.

Summary.

Pollinators, including wild and managed bees, hoverflies, diurnal and nocturnal butterflies, wasps, bugs, other insects, birds and mammals play an important role in the reproduction, seed and fruit production of most dicotyledonous plant species, including three-quarters of the cultivated plants. Through their pollination as an ecosystem service their ecological and economical importance is enormous, and has a key role in human safety regarding food, health, finances and the environment. Animal pollination can be only partially or essentially needed by a plant species to reach its optimal fruit or seed quality and quantity. The pollinator related wild plants are important elements of the terrestrial ecosystems, providing our environment safety through elemental material circles. However, the foraging and nesting resources they need are limited in managed ecosystems, such as intensive agricultural or industrial landscapes. Pollinators contribute to the production of the majority of cultivated plants at a certain extent, including such economically important crops like sunflower, oilseed rape, apple, cherry, water melon, etc. Their direct contribution to global food production seems to be low, only 5-8%, but this share in human diet ensures such nutrients, vitamins and minerals that are essential for health development and life. Furthermore, besides the physical health, pollinators play a key role in mental health as well by the provision of diverse and flowering environment, enjoyed by any outdoor activities. Unfortunately, populations of many wild pollinator species decline worldwide and high proportion of honeybee colonies are lost from time to time in several regions. The main drivers behind these declines are habitat loss and change caused mainly by agricultural intensification and urbanisation, climate change, invasion, pests and pathogens and pesticide use. To halt these declines overwhelming strategies are needed at local, national, regional and global level. The EU Pollinator Strategy and the Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 sets ambitious targets for pollinator conservation, initiating among others an EU level pollinator monitoring program, that is under test phase. These actions might have the chance to reverse the pollinator decline and maintain pollinators and pollination services, however, only in the case of real actions with joint effort of scientists, decision makers and the public.

Open access

## A talajlakó állatok és az endomikorrhiza-gombák közötti kapcsolatok szerepe a növények tápanyagellátásában

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Anikó Seres
and
Gábor Bakonyi

A dolgozatban áttekintjük a talajban élő állatok és az arbuszkuláris mikorrhizagombák (AM-gomba) közötti sokféle kapcsolatrendszert. Várható, hogy a klímaváltozások következtében növekszik a száraz időszakok gyakorisága. Ilyen körülmények között a mikorrhiza-gombák jelentősége a növények tápanyag- és vízfelvételében a jelenlegi állapothoz képest növekedni fog.

Célunk, hogy bemutassuk az állatok hatását az AM-gombákra és ezen keresztül a növényi tápanyagfelvételre, valamint a növények növekedésére.

A különböző talajlakó állatfajok hatása az AM-gombákra egyidejűleg lehet pozitív és negatív is, ezért a hatások eredőjeként tapasztalt jelenségek magyarázata sokszor igen bonyolult.

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## Moisture content changing of a historic roof structure in terms of climate effects

Pollack Periodica
Authors:
,
Anikó Csébfalvi
, and

## Abstract

Timber is a widely used material in construction. The moisture content has a significant impact on the mechanical and physical properties of it. This paper studies how the moisture content values are directly connected to the climate conditions, especially temperature and relative humidity, by measuring these factors for a non-renovated historical timber roof for a one-year period, combined with meteorological data for Pécs since 1901. The fluctuation in moisture content values created instability in the water content of the structural elements due to absorption and release of water in order to reach the equivalent moisture content point. This process led to continuous volume increase-decrease of the timber, thus to formation of cracks, discoloration and harmful fungi development.

Open access

## Palm oil substitution in hazelnut spread

Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Anikó Kovács
,
Lilla Körmendi
, and

## Abstract

One of the most important components in spreads is the fat phase. The characteristics of the used fat determine most of the quality factors of the products such as viscosity, texture, colour, shelf life, etc. In these kinds of products, the commonly used fat is palm fat, however, in recent years it has had a bad press due to its negative environmental impact and health concerns. Therefore, the aim of our research was to develop a palm oil free hazelnut spread. We investigated the effect of replacing the fat in the fat phase with milk fat or coconut fat to the apparent viscosity, colour and texture properties of the product. According to our results the palm fat had the highest and coconut fat had the lowest viscosity. In texture analyses palm fat and milk fat showed no significant difference in hardness and in work of penetration. Coconut fat was significantly different in every texture attributes from the other samples. In the case of colour measurement all samples were significantly different. Despite the observed differences in some parameters the suitability of milk fat for hazelnut spread production should be further investigated (sensory analyses, shelf-life).

Open access

## Evaluation of a gluten-free sourdough bakery product

Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Anikó Kovács
,
,
Györgyné Kóczán
, and
Zoltán Kókai

## Abstract

The population of gluten sensitive people has been gradually rising in the last decades. The food industry, especially the bakery industry has to develop more gluten-free products to satisfy the consumer's demand. However, the quality of these products differs from the quality attributes of a standard glutenious bakery product. Therefore, the aim of our research was to develop a good quality gluten-free sourdough product with 3 different gluten-free flours: millet, brown rice and a commercially available mixture (Belbake). We investigated the differences in moisture content, the baking loss, the texture and the sensory properties of the products. According to our results in the case of the moisture content the brown rice sample had the highest, while the millet gave the lowest value. The baking loss measurement gave reverse results. In the texture analysis the brown rice sample was the softest, but the millet and the Belbake had better results in resilience and in springiness. Also, in the sensory analyses the Belbake product was found to be the best by the judges, however, there were no significant differences between them. In conclusion, the product development of a gluten-free sourdough bakery product was successful. Further research is needed to investigate the shelf life of the products.

Open access

## The effect of sugar substitution on model confectionary systems

Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Anikó Kovács
,
, and
László Somogyi

## Abstract

Excessive consumption of added sugar is associated with many health problems, for example obesity, type 2 diabetes, etc. Hence there is an urgent need for the product reformulation by total replacement or partial reduction of sugar in food industry. The aim of this research was to study the effect of sugar substitution (by stevia and xylitol) on model confectionary systems. We investigated differences in the texture properties, the viscosity and thermal properties of the blends. Based on our results, the sugar substitution affects the physical properties of the measured samples. The apparent viscosity and the texture properties were changed due to the different dry matter content in the samples. In the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) curves the different melting of the samples were expressed according to the changes in sugar content. Further work is needed in this field to follow up the discovered changes in thermal behaviour of these mixtures.

Open access