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The potency for production of cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL) by the fungal isolates was screened. Among the tested twenty-two isolates, Aspergillus carneus was the potent CGL producer (6.29 U/mg), followed by A. ochraceous (6.03 U/mg), A. versicolor (2.51 U/mg), A. candidus (2.12 U/mg), A. niveus and Penicillium notatum (2.0 U/mg). The potent six isolates producing CGL was characterized morphologically, A. carneus KF723837 was further molecularly characterized based on the sequence of 18S–28S rDNA. Upon sulfur starvation, the yield of A. carneus extracellular CGL was increased by about 1.7- and 4.1-fold comparing to non-sulfur starved and L-methionine free medium, respectively. Also, the uptake of L-methionine was duplicated upon sulfur starvation, assuming the activation of specific transporters for L-methionine and efflux of CGL. Also, the intracellular thiols and GDH activity of A. carneus was strongly increased by S starvation, revealing the activation of in vivo metabolic antioxidant systems. Upon irradiation of A. carneus by 2.0 kGy of γ-rays, the activity of CGL was increased by two-fold, regarding to control, with an obvious decreases on its yield upon further doses. Practically, CGL activity from the solid A. carneus cultures, using rice bran as substrate, was increased by 1.2-fold, comparing to submerged cultures, under optimum conditions.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Ahmad Hegazy
Shahira Ezzat
Iman Qasem
Mohamed Ali-Shtayeh
Mohammed Basalah
Hayssam Ali
, and
Ashraf Hatamleh

The present study attempts to explore the phytochemical constituents of different extracts from Cynara cornigera and Cichorium endivia plant materials. The two species studied are native in Egypt. Five different solvents, viz., aqueous, methylene chloride, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol were used. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, sterols (stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol), terpenes (α-amyrin, ursolic and oleanolic acid), and hydrocarbons (n-alkane), the latter found in low amount. The ethyl acetate and water extracts of C. cornigera root showed lower mass fractions of phenolic compounds ranged from 20 to 81 g/100 g, and higher amounts in ethyl acetate extract of the inflorescences and butanol extract of the root where values ranged from 195 to 399 g/100 g. The β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were present in all plant extracts. Oleanolic and ursolic acids were detected in roots, leaves and inflorescences of C. cornigera and in C. endivia shoot. The ethyl acetate extracts from C. cornigera leaf and inflorescence attained higher chemical diversity than the other extracts. Alternatively, sterols and triterpenes were the major constituents. The high chemical diversity of active constituents justifies the future potential use of the two species at commercial level.

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This study investigated the diagnostic value of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and serum lactate in elderly patients with sepsis and evaluated their capacity to predict mortality and their correlation to Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. The study included 80 participants, divided into two groups: 40 cases (mean age, 68.9 ± 5.9) admitted to the intensive care unit and 40 healthy controls (mean age, 67.1 ± 6.2). Elderly patients with sepsis had significantly higher levels of serum suPAR and lactic acid compared to healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that suPAR (cutoff value, ≥4.37 ng/ml) has higher area under the curve (AUC) than lactic acid (cutoff value, ≥1.95 mmol/l) for diagnosing sepsis. Serum lactate has superior prognostic value compared to suPAR with AUC of 0.82 (cutoff value, 2.2 mmol/l) and 0.72 (cutoff value, 6.3 ng/ml), respectively. The diagnostic power of combined usage of suPAR and lactate serum concentrations showed AUC of 0.988 (95% confidence interval 0.934 to 1.0). The combination of both biomarkers either together or with SOFA score may serve as a useful guide to patients who need more intensive resuscitation.

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