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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
G Mészáros
,
Cs Orbán
,
A Kaposi
,
G Toldi
,
B Gyarmati
,
T Tulassay
, and
Prof. Barna Vásárhelyi

Mitochondrial functions have a major impact on T-cell functionality. In this study we characterized whether mitochondrial function in the neonatal T-cells differs from that in the adult T-cells during short T-cell activation. Methods: We used fow cytometry methods to test mitochondrial mass and to monitor mitochondrial Ca2+ levels, mitochondrial potential and superoxide generation in parallel with cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels during phythohaemagglutinine-induced activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells of 12 term neonates and 11 healthy adults. Results: Baseline mitochondrial mass of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was lower in the neonate than in the adult. In comparison with the adult, neonatal resting CD4+ T-cells had lower cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels and this was associated with normal activation induced Ca2+-response. During short-term activation cytoplasmic Ca2+-response was lower in neonatal than in adult CD8+ T-cells. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake was increased in CD4+ neonatal T cells while it decreased in CD8+ T-cells. Mitochondrial depolarization was increased in CD4+ and decreased in CD8+ neonatal T-cells compared to adults. Superoxide generation was higher and equal in neonatal CD4+ and CD8+ cells, respectively, compared to the adult ones. Conclusion: Our data suggest that neonatal T-cells exhibit marked differences in mitochondrial function and superoxide generation compared to adult T-cells.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper provides a detailed presentation of the estimated number of people in Hungary with eye disease and refractive errors by both sex and age.

Materials/methods

In the past 12 years, 168,522 people (54.1% women and 45.9% men) have been screened under Hungary's Comprehensive Health Protection Screening Programme (MÁESZ).

Results

The total number of people with eye disease in the adult Hungarian population (about 8 million people) is estimated to be 1,684,818, with women (1,078,026) outnumbering men (606,792). Eye diseases were found to be more common in older age groups, and more common in women than men in each age group. The estimated number of people with refractive errors in the Hungarian adult population is 5,005,095. The overall number of people with myopia in the adult Hungarian population is estimated to be 3,058,536, with roughly equal numbers of men and women. The majority of people with myopia (63.3%) are between 18 and 45 years of age.

Conclusions

The huge number of people in the Hungarian population affected by eye disease or refractive errors underscores the need to develop and implement an effective national strategy and specific programmes to prevent visual impairments.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Adam Šuluburić
,
Svetlana Milanović
,
Sanja Vranješ-Đurić
,
Ivan B. Jovanović
,
Tomislav Barna
,
Milica Stojić
,
Natalija Fratrić
,
Ottó Szenci
, and
Dragan Gvozdić

Early embryonic development may be negatively affected by insufficient progesterone (P4) production. Therefore, the aim of our study was to increase P4 by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and/or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatments after inducing oestrus by prostaglandin (PG) treatment. Lactating Simmental dairy cows (n = 110), between 1 to 5 lactations, with an average milk production of 6,500 1/305 days, at 40–80 days postpartum were used and grouped as follows: (1) PG + GnRH treatment at AI (GnRH group), (2) PG + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (hCG group), (3) PG + GnRH at AI + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (GnRH/hCG group), and (4) spontaneous oestrus (C: control group). All animals were double inseminated (at the time of oestrus detection and 12 ± 2 h thereafter). Blood serum and milk samples were collected at the day of observed oestrus (day 0), and 14, 21 and 28 days after AI. Serum P4 was determined using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) test (INEP, Zemun), and milk P4 was determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) test (NIV Novi Sad). Pregnancy status was confirmed by ultrasonography between days 28 and 35 after AI. Differences of serum or milk P4 medians, pregnancy (and calving) rate were determined using Dunn’s Multiple Comparison Tests and Z test, respectively. Serum P4 medians were significantly higher at days 14, 21 and 28 after AI in the hCG-treated animals, indicating increased luteal activity, with a similar tendency in whole milk P4 values. Treatment with hCG during the early luteal phase significantly contributed to the maintenance of gestation at days 28–35 after AI, and also increased the calving rate in Simmental dairy cows.

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Az elhízás kezelése és megelőzése: táplálkozás, testmozgás, orvosi lehetőségek

Hazai szakmaközi ajánlás

Therapy and prevention of obesity: nutrition, physical activity and medical treatment

Recommendations of Hungarian professionals
Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Imre Rurik
,
Péter Apor
,
Mária Barna
,
István Barna
,
J. Róbert Bedros
,
Péter Kempler
,
Éva Martos
,
Elemér Mohos
,
Gábor Pavlik
,
Gyula †Pados
,
József Pucsok
,
Gábor Simonyi
, and
György Bíró

Összefoglaló. Az elhízás és következményes megbetegedései fontos népegészségügyi problémát jelentenek hazánkban is. Kezelése komoly szakmai kihívás, ugyanakkor prevenciója eredményesebb lehet. Az elhízott betegekkel leggyakrabban találkozó háziorvosok, más szakorvosok és egészségügyi szakemberek részéről nagy igény van egy viszonylag rövid, áttekinthető, naprakész gyakorlatias útmutatóra. A különböző orvosszakmai társaságokban tevékenykedő, évtizedes szakmai tapasztalatokkal rendelkező szerzők összefoglalják tudományosan megalapozott, bizonyítékokon alapuló ismereteiket. Az elhízás kezelését lépcsőzetesen célszerű megkezdeni, előtte felmérve a beteg motivációját, általános állapotát, lehetőségeit. A szerzők leírják az energiaszükséglet meghatározásával, az étrenddel és a fizikai aktivitás megtervezésével kapcsolatos alapvető szempontokat. Felsorolják a hazánkban elérhető gyógyszereket és metabolikus sebészeti beavatkozásokat, az életmódi támogatás igényét. Az elhízás megelőzésében az élet első 1000 napjának táplálkozása, a későbbiekben a szülői minta a meghatározó. Sok kihasználatlan lehetősége van a háziorvosok, a lakóközösségek, az állami szervek koordinált együttműködésének, helyi kezdeményezéseknek. Az elhízás betegségként való meghatározása egyaránt igényel egészségpolitikai és kormányzati támogatást, az elhízottak ellátására szakosodott multidiszciplináris centrumok számának és kompetenciájának növelését. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(9): 323–335.

Summary. Obesity and related morbidities have a high public health impact in Hungary. The treatment is a challenge, but prevention seems more effective. General practitioners, other specialists and health care professionals who are treating obese persons require short, summarized, updated and practical guideline. Hungarian medical professionals of different scientific societies, having decennial practices, are summarizing their evidence-based knowledge. Obesity management requires step by step approach, evaluating previously the general health condition, motivation and options of the patients. The measurement of energy requirement, planning of diet and physical activities, available surgical methods and medications are described in detail with life style and mental support needed. The most important period in the prevention of obesity is the first 1000 days from conception. Other significant factors are the life style habits of the parents. Proper obesity prevention requires better coordination of primary health care, community and governmental activities. Obesity should be defined as morbidity, therefore stronger governmental support and more health-policy initiatives are needed, beside increasing number and developing of multidisciplinary centres. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(9): 323–335.

Open access