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Secondary sexual characteristics such as softening and rounding of the abdomen as well as reddening and protrusion of the anal papilla and vent can be of help to breeders in selecting common carp (Cyprinus carpio) females prepared for propagation. To assess the reliability of this method, long-term data obtained on induced spawning of common carp at a large-scale fish hatchery were evaluated. The average spawning ratio of 2,620 females receiving hormonal injections was 79.8%. The average pseudogonadosomatic index (PGSI) calculated from data on the egg production of 2,086 females was 16.3 ± 5.87% (mean ± SD) for the same period. There was a correlation between fish weight and the time of induction determined by the breeder on the basis of external morphological characteristics. The similarity of the responses of females, including both spawning ratio and PGSI, among the different weight categories proved the reliability of this method for identification.

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The mechanisms leading to the development of eosinophilia were investigated in 65 patients with immunodermatological disorders, including the role of eosinophilotactic cytokines and the possible involvement of human T-cell leukemia virus, HTLV. HTLV-1 gag proviral sequences were revealed in two cases of lymphoproliferative disorders such as angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) and CD4+ cutaneous lymphoma, respectively. Increased level of GM-CSF was detected in 33% of disorders studied. Elevated level of IL-5 and eotaxin was detected in 27% and 30%, respectively, of patients with bullous diseases. Elevated level of GM-CSF and eotaxin was found in 33% and 46%, respectively, of patients with inflammatory diseases. Neither of the four cytokines, however proved to be responsible alone or together for the induction of eosinophilia. The possible indirect role of human retroviruses through induction of eosinophilic chemotactic cytokines is hypothesized.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Krisztina Marosi
,
Endre Horváth
,
Péter Nagy
,
Bernadett Köles
, and
Zsolt B. Nagy

Az utóbbi években megerősítést nyert a fizikai teljesítmény jelentős mértékű genetikai meghatározottsága. Emellett a sportoláshoz köthető sérülésekre és betegségekre való genetikai hajlamról is egyre nagyobb ismeretanyag áll rendelkezésünkre. A teljesítményt befolyásoló génpolimorfizmusok vizsgálata lehetőséget kínál a sportági kiválasztási rendszer fejlesztésére. A sportoló genetikai profiljának ismerete a jövőben lehetővé teszi a személyre szabott edzésprogram kidolgozását és ezáltal a teljesítmény potenciális növelését. A genetikai tesztek a jövőben fontos szerepet játszhatnak a sérülések és a betegségek genetikai kockázati tényezőinek szűrésében is. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 1247–1255.

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Exercise-caused metabolic changes can be followed by monitoring exhaled volatiles; however it has not been previously reported if a spectrum of exhaled gases is modified after physical challenge. We have hypothesized that changes in volatile molecules assessed by an electronic nose may be the reason for the alkalization of the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid following physical exercise.Ten healthy young subjects performed a 6-minute running test. Exhaled breath samples pre-exercise and post-exercise (0 min, 15 min, 30 min and 60 min) were collected for volatile pattern (“smellprint”) determination and pH measurements (at 5.33 kPa CO2), respectively. Exhaled breath smellprints were analyzed using principal component analysis and were related to EBC pH.Smellprints (p=0.04) and EBC pH (p=0.01) were altered during exercise challenge. Compared to pre-exercise values, smellprints and pH differed at 15 min, 30 min and 60 min following exercise (p<0.05), while no difference was found at 0 min post-exercise. In addition, a significant correlation was found between volatile pattern of exhaled breath and EBC pH (p=0.01, r=−0.34).Physical exercise changes the pattern of exhaled volatiles together with an increase in pH of breath. Changes in volatiles may be responsible for increase in EBC pH.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
E. Lukács
,
B. Magyari
,
L. Tóth
,
Zs. Petrási
,
I. Repa
,
A. Koller
, and
Iván Horváth

There are several experimental models for the in vivo investigation of myocardial infarction (MI) in small (mouse, rat) and large animals (dog, pig, sheep and baboons). The application of large animal models raises ethical concerns, the design of experiments needs longer follow-up times, requiring proper breeding and housing conditions, therefore resulting in higher cost, than in vitro or small animal studies. On the other hand, the relevance of large animal models is very important, since they mostly resemble to human physiological and pathophysiological processes. The first main difference among MI models is the method of induction (open or closed chest, e.g. surgical or catheter based); the second main difference is the presence or absence of reperfusion. The former (i.e. reperfused MI) allows the investigation of reperfusion injury and new catheter based techniques during percutaneous coronary interventions, while the latter (i.e. nonreperfused MI) serves as a traditional coronary occlusion model, to test the effects of new pharmacological agents and biological therapies, as cell therapy. The reperfused and nonreperfused myocardial infarction has different outcomes, regarding left ventricular function, remodelling, subsequent heart failure, aneurysm formation and mortality. Our aim was to review the literature and report our findings regarding experimental MI models, regarding the differences among species, methods, reproducibility and interpretation.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
P. Horváth
,
M. Petrekanits
,
I. Györe
,
Zs Kneffel
,
B. Varga-Pintér
, and
Gábor Pavlik

In the authors’ earlier study the relative aerobic power of Hungarian top-level male water polo players was found to be smaller than that of other top-level athletes, while their echocardiographic parameters proved to be the most characteristic of the athlete’s heart. In the present investigation echocardiographic and spiroergometric data of female top-level water polo players were compared to those of other female elite athletes and of healthy, non-athletic subjects. Relative aerobic power in the water polo players was lower than in endurance athletes. Mean resting heart rates were the slowest in the water polo players and endurance athletes. Morphologic indicators of the heart (body size related left ventricular wall thickness and muscle mass) were the highest in the water polo players, endurance and power athletes. In respect of diastolic functions (diastolic early and late peak transmitral flow velocities) no difference was seen between the respective groups.These results indicate that, similarly to the males, top-level water polo training is associated with the dimensional parameters of the heart rather than with relative aerobic power. For checking the physical condition of female water polo players spiroergometric tests seem to be less appropriate than swim-tests with heart rate recovery studies such as the ones used in the males.

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Physiology International
Authors:
D. Gerszi
,
Á. Penyige
,
Z. Mezei
,
B. Sárai-Szabó
,
R. Benkő
,
B. Bányai
,
C. Demendi
,
E. Ujvári
,
S. Várbíró
, and
E.M. Horváth

Abstract

Introduction

Increased oxidative/nitrative stress is characteristic not only in pathologic, but also in healthy pregnancy. High uterine artery pulsatility index (UtAPI) at the end of the first trimester is associated with altered placentation and elevated risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to examine the relationship of systemic oxidative/nitrative stress and uterine artery pulsatility index in the first trimester and their correlation to pregnancy outcomes.

Material and methods

Healthy pregnant women were recruited at 12–13th gestational week ultrasound examination; UtAPI was determined by color Doppler ultrasound. Patients were divided into high (UtAPI ≥ 2.3) (n = 30) and low (n = 31) resistance groups, and pregnancies were followed until labor. Systemic oxidative/nitrative stress was estimated by measuring total peroxide level, total antioxidant capacity and nitrotyrosine level.

Results

Plasma total peroxide level was significantly lower (2,510 ± 39 µM vs. 2,285 ± 59 µM), total antioxidant capacity was higher (781 ± 16 mM CRE vs. 822 ± 13 mM CRE) in the high UtAPI group, which were accompanied by lower birth weight (3,317 ± 64 vs. 3,517 ± 77 g, P < 0.05). Plasma total peroxide level showed a negative correlation (by Pearson) to UtAPI (P < 0.01) and positive correlation to birth weight (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

According to our results, lower systemic oxidative stress showed correlation with high UtAPI measured between the 12–13th weeks of gestation. We also found significant differences in the birth weight of healthy newborns; therefore it is worth examining this relationship in pathological pregnancies.

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors:
Szaniszló Z. Jávor
,
K. Shanava
,
E. Hocsák
,
M. Kürthy
,
J. Lantos
,
B. Borsiczky
,
I. Takács
,
Sz. Horváth
,
B. Balatonyi
,
S. Ferencz
,
A. Ferencz
,
E. Rőth
, and
Gy. Wéber

Abstract

Increased intra-abdominal pressure during laparoscopy leads to hypoxia due to reduced blood flow. Aim of our study was to investigate whether preconditioning can reduce this negative effect of the pneumoperitoneum. Fifty female Wistar rats were used, divided into 5 groups. I: Sham operation (Sham), II: conventional pneumoperitoneum (PP), III: transvaginal pneumoperitoneum (TV), IV: preconditioning for 2.5 minutes in two cycles (Pre 2.5), V: preconditioning for 5 minutes (Pre 5). Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), sulfhydrylgroup (SH-) concentrations, superoxide-dismutase (SOD) and mieloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and anti-apoptotic pathway marker p-AKT level and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α were measured. SOD activity and GSH concentration were decreased in PP and TV groups comparing to Sham and preconditioning groups. MPO activity was decreased also in PP and TV groups comparing to the Sham group but in the preconditioning groups it has remained high. MDA concentration in plasma was increased in PP and TV groups comparing to Sham and preconditioning groups. There was no difference in the case of blood MDA and SH-concentrations between groups. Anti-apoptotic pathway marker p-AKT level was decreased in the TV group comparing to the sham and preconditioning groups. TNF-α level was increased in TV and preconditioning groups compared to the sham group. According to the results preconditioning can reduce negative effects of pneumoperitoneum.

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors:
K. Shanava
,
Sz. Horváth
,
F. Karl-Hermann
,
Sz. Jávor
,
I. Takács
,
B. Balatonyi
,
S. Ferencz
,
A. Ferencz
,
E. Rőth
, and
György Wéber

Abstract

Introduction:The Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is an abdominal operation carried out with flexible endoscopic instruments and their advanced versions via natural orifices. The NOTES causes theoretically less pain, operative stress, shorter hospitalization, quicker recovery and it is scarless. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of transgastric small bowel resection. Materials and methods: Seven domestic pigs were investigated and entered the study; body weight 25 kg in average. General anesthesia was performed. One trocar was used for laparoscopic observations during gastrotomy and transgastric penetration with the gastroscope, later for assistance with a grasper for manipulation of the bowel loops and for the application of the linear stapling device. Then the needle knife was used to complete a 1.5 cm long incision in the gastric wall. The gastroscope was advanced into the peritoneal cavity and a small bowel loop was identified and elevated with a flexible grasper. Through the second channel of the scope a coag grasper was used to dissect the mesentery. Then a linear stapler was inserted through the assisting trocar and the resection was performed. Afterwards the bowel ends were opened with the needle knife and the stapler was reinserted for a side-to-side anastomosis. The specimen was removed via the stomach. Gastric closure was completed by laparoscopic mini-instruments through the stapler-port. All special events and all problems were prospectively documented. Follow-up was performed over 2 weeks and body weight was recorded. Then a laparoscopy was performed to document adhesions or abscess formation. Finally the animals were sacrificed to evaluate further evidence of infection or adhesions. Results: The operations were carried without complications, there was no case of letal outcome. On the 12th day the abdominal laparoscopic revision was carried out, after the revision in one case adhesion could be detected, no other kinds of complications were noticed. Conclusion: According to our results, the transgastric small bowel resection is a safe procedure, but further special instruments are needed. These experimental procedures should be evaluated carefully and critically in clinical practice.

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