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LetF n be a Finsler space with metric functionF(x, y). M. Matsumoto [6] has defined a modified Finsler spaceF

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Abstract  

Solid state reactivity between iron/II/oxalate dihydrate, i.e., FeC2O4.2H2O and para-chloro aniline hydrochloride, i.e., p-ClC6H4NH2.HCl has been studied at 373, 393 and 413 K. The reaction seems to follow the diffusion controlled mechanism. The product, [FeCl/oxH/.AN–Cl], has been characterized by elemental analysis, infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques, mass spectrometry and derivatographic methods /TG, DTA/.

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Thermal decomposition of bis 2-amino-5-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole copper(II) sulphate has been studied by TG, DTA and DTG. The electrical conductivity of the compound in the solid state have also been measured at different temperatures. It is believed that decomposition is a nucleation controlled process and starts at the site of defects.

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Aphids have acquired the status of major pest in North-western plains of India. A complex of five species infests the wheat in this part of the country. The diatomaceous earth (DE) has the potential to substitute the most widely used method of chemical control. Laboratory and field investigations were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of DE either as soil or foliar application for suppression of wheat aphids during 2013–2014 and 2014–2015. The fecundity, adult longevity and total developmental duration of Rhopalosiphum padi decreased with the increasing dosage of soil application of DE in laboratory evaluation. However in field studies, no significant difference in aphid population was observed among different levels of DE application in soil. Foliar application of DE 150 kg/ha and higher dosages significantly reduced aphid population for initial two days but thereafter it had no effect on aphid prevalence. Wheat plant dusted with different dosages of DE did not show any visible injury but the reduction in chlorophyll content was observed in them. Overall, poor field efficacy coupled with loss of chlorophyll and safety issues relating to foliar application of DE proved against its use for control of sucking insect pests.

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The CERES-rice model (version 4.0) was calibrated and validated using the data from a field experiment carried out during the rainy season of 2004 and 2005 at Shalimar, Srinagar (35° 5′ N latitude and 74° 89′ E longitude, 1587 m above the mean sea level, India. The experiment included six rice cultivars each transplanted on 25 May, 10 June and 25 June. Data of 25 May transplanting was used for model calibration and development of the genetic coefficients of the rice cultivars. The predicted and observed dates of phenological events were in close agreement with root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and D-index of 5.0 days, 4.3 days and 0.91, respectively, for anthesis and 3.7 days, 3.1 days and 0.91, respectively, for physiological maturity of the crop. The predicted and observed grain yields were also very close with a RMSE of 0.63 Mg ha −1 , MAE of 0.58 Mg ha −1 and D-index of 0.89, respectively. Corresponding values for above ground biomass was 1.17 Mg ha −1 , 1.01 Mg ha −1 and 0.82. Sensitivity test showed that simulated yield responded to temperature and atmospheric CO 2 concentration. Nitrogen 240 kg ha −1 at 25 May transplanting, recorded highest simulated grain yield (9.71 Mg ha −1 ). Further, 3 seedlings hill −1 produced highest simulated grain yield. The results suggest that the model can be applied in the temperate Kashmir to estimate crop productivity and optimize the management practices.

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Germinated brown rice received great attention as healthy ingredient and can be used as an alternative source in the malting and brewing industry. The germination capacity, physico-nutritional properties, sugars, and diastase enzyme activity of brown rice affected by germination times and temperature were determined and compared with control. Soaking in water increased the moisture content of brown rice. Germination rate of brown rice was also increased by higher germination time and temperature and reached maximum after 48 h of germination at 35 ºC. However, dry matter loss, grain weight, and density are affected to a lesser extent. Germination significantly (P<0.05) affects the crude protein, fat, fibre, and ash contents. Total carbohydrates content showed linear relationship with germination time and temperature. During germination, hydrolytic enzymes act on starch, reducing its concentration and resulting in higher total and reducing sugars amounts. Increase in germination time and temperature also increased diastase enzyme activity.

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Abstract  

Lead(II) complexes of reduced glutathione (GSH) of general composition [Pb(L)(X)]H2O (where L=GSH; X=Cl, NO3, CH3COO, NCS) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, infrared spectra and electronic spectra. Thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analytical (DTA) studies have been carried out for these complexes. Infrared spectra indicate deprotonation and coordination of cysteinyl sulphur with metal ion. It indicates the presence of water molecule in the complexes that has been supported by TG/DTA. The thermal behaviour of complexes shows that water molecule is removed in first step-followed removal of anions and then decomposition of the ligand molecule in the subsequent steps. Thermal decomposition of all the complexes proceeds via first order kinetics. The thermodynamic activation parameters, such as E*, A, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* have been calculated. The geometry of the metal complexes has been studied with the help of molecular modeling for energy minimization calculation.

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The High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits (HMW GS) in bread wheat landraces were studied using the SDS-PAGE technique. Out of the 32 landraces, 23 were homogeneous while nine showed heterogeneity with respect to the HMW glutenin subunits. Novel variants were observed in HMW GS in four of the landraces. One novel subunit coded by the Glu-B1x locus and two novel subunit pairs at the Glu-D1 locus were identified. A modified system of nomenclature over that of Payne and Lawrence (1983) is suggested for numbering the new subunits. Accordingly, the novel subunits are numbered as 7 1 ( Glu-B1x ) and 2+12 2 ; 5 1 +12 2 ; 5 2 +12 3 and 5 3 +12 3 ( Glu-D1x + y ) and the allelic designations are given as Glu-B1 bh for 7 1 +9; Glu-D1bp for 2+12 2 . Glu-D1bq for 5 1 +12; Glu-D1br for 5 1 +12 2 ; GluD1br for 5 2 +12 3 and GluD1bt for 5 3 +12 3 .

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Abstract  

α-Hemihydrate was allowed to hydrate in the presence of tartaric, succinic, malic or citric acids at room temperature at a water/ binder ratio of 0.35. Hydration of hemihydrate leading to the crystallisation of calcium sulphate dihydrate is an exothermic process. The temperature rise during hydration was measured as a function of time using a semi-adiabatic method. The temperature rise–time curves are similar for all investigated systems but with different induction period. The results showed that calcium sulphate dihydrate crystallisation is a nucleation controlled process and different acids are chemisorbed at the surface of forming nuclei to different extent. Processes taking place during nucleation may control the morphology of resultant crystals. Infrared spectral and differential scanning calorimetric studies confirmed the adsorption of carboxylic acids at the surface of dihydrate crystals.

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