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  • Author or Editor: B. Yu x
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Three yeasts from the genus Williopsis (W. saturnus var. mrakii NCYC500, W. saturnus var. saturnus CBS254 and W. californica NCYC2590) were examined for their ability to ferment longan juice and to enhance formation of longan wine aroma compounds. The three yeasts showed similar growth kinetics and pH changes during fermentation. W. californica was the least sugar consumer. Many of the naturally occurring volatiles (ethyl esters, fatty acids, aldehydes, and terpenes) in the juice were partially or completely degraded. The three yeasts varied with their ability to produce and utilise volatiles. Esters were the major volatiles produced with some esters being catabolised while other esters remained stable. The amount of most alcohols increased while of aldehydes decreased. W. saturnus CBS254 was the best producer of ethyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isoamyl acetate and 2-phenethyl acetate, whereas W. californica NCYC2590 was the highest producer of butyl acetate. Ethanol was produced in similar amounts by W. mrakii and W. saturnus but at a minimal level by W. californica. W. mrakii formed the highest amount of isobutyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol and 2-phenylethyl alcohol. Although the amounts of most of the major volatiles at the end of fermentation (day 14) differed statistically among the yeasts, it remained to be seen whether the quantitative differences can be detected organoleptically. These fi ndings suggest that yeasts from the genus Williopsis could be exploited for longan wine aroma enhancement either singly or in co-inoculation with Saccharomyces.

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae MERIT.ferm was used as mono- and mixed-cultures with Williopsis saturnus var. mrakii NCYC500 in mango wine fermentation. A ratio of 1:1000 (Saccharomyces:Williopsis) was chosen for mixed-culture fermentation to enable longer persistence of the latter. The monoculture of S. cerevisiae and mixed-culture was able to ferment to dryness with 7.0% and 7.7% ethanol, respectively. The monoculture of W. mrakii produced 1.45% ethanol. The mango wines fermented by S. cerevisiae alone and the mixed-culture were more yeasty and winey, which reflected their higher amounts of fusel alcohols, ethyl esters and medium-chain fatty acids. The mango wine fermented by W. mrakii alone was much less alcoholic, but fruitier, sweeter, which corresponded to its higher levels of acetate esters.

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Conversion of economic microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) into high value-added prebiotic glucans, is not only stimulates utilisation of renewable lignocellulosic biomass, but also provides cheap prebiotics to reduce high incidence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Herein, glucans (C0.25–C0.50–C1.00) from MCC were prepared by pre-impregnation with dilute sulphuric acid (0.25–0.50–1.00%) and ball-milling treatment for 1 h. NMR spectroscopy and gel-permeation chromatography of the glucan products showed a significant reduction in the degree of polymerisation (DP) and molecular weights (Mw). All prepared glucans improved gut stress evaluated by in vitro digestion and fermentation (young and aging mouse faecal inocula). C1.00 with lower DP and Mw showed better water solubility, earlier peak, and exhibited increased 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl activity, higher ratios of Lactobacillus to Escherichia coli, and a higher level of short chain fatty acids better than C0.25 and C0.50 treatment (P < 0.05). Better prebiotic effects were observed in aging mice than in young mice. The highest ratio of Lactobacillus to E. coli was a 2.13-fold increase for aging mice compared to a 1.79-fold increase for young mice, relative to the initial value after C1.00 treatment. The study provides a novel pathway and a new resource for producing glucan.

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