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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Judith Anna Nikolić
,
Olgica Nedić
,
H. Šamanc
,
S. Aleksić
,
B. Miščević
, and
Margit Kulcsár

Interrelationships between circulating concentrations of the insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) were investigated in 235 blood samples taken from 145 healthy beef or dairy calves, bulls and cows of different breeds and ages. Autoradiography of Western ligand blots indicated different IGF binding protein (IGFBP) profiles between sera from different categories of cattle. Each IGF radioimmunoassay was validated by determining the effects of IGFBPs, ligand and contraligand, as well as serial dilution and comparison with results obtained after molecular sieve chromatography in acid. In female cattle mean values for IGF-I varied from 5.1 nmol/l in postparturient Holstein cows to 18.5–20.5 nmol/l in growing beef heifers, while mean IGF-II concentrations ranged from 30.0 nmol/l in the cows to 14.7–15.7 nmol/l in the beef heifer calves. In male cattle mean serum IGF-I ranged widely from 8.2 nmol/l in 1-day-old Holstein calves to 67.4 nmol/l in 16-month-old Simmental-type bulls. Mean IGF-II concentrations decreased from 22.9 nmol/l in 1-day-old Holstein bull calves to 11.9 nmol/l in 12-month-old beef bulls. Thus, total molar IGF concentrations were fairly stable in female cattle (24.7–35.1 nmol/l) but extended from 27.3 nmol/l to 81.8 nmol/l in the male cattle. The tendency for a reciprocal relationship between serum concentrations of these growth factors was most obvious in the periparturient cows.

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Abstract

Background

Hypoxia is a pivotal initiator of tumor angiogenesis and growth through the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). This study set out to examine the involvement of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in colon cancer and ascertained whether ORAI3 was involved in the pathway.

Materials and methods

Patients and murine models as well as human colorectal adenocarcinoma tumor (CW2) cells were included to examine the levels of ORAI1/3 and HIF-1/2α levels. Calcium imaging was utilized to ascertain the activity of calcium channel. Scratch assay was used to assess the migration capacity of the cells.

Results

Tumors from murine colon cancer xenograft models and patients with colon cancer displayed high ORAI1/3 and HIF-1/2α levels. Hypoxia treatment, mimicking the tumor microenvironment in vitro, increased ORAI1/3 and HIF-1/2α expression as well as store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Of note is that HIF-1/2α silencing decreased SOCE, and HIF-1/2α overexpression facilitated SOCE. Furthermore, ORAI3 rather than ORAI1 expression was inhibited by HIF-1/2α silencing while increased by ML228. Luciferase assay also confirmed that ORAI3 was elevated in the presence of ML228, indicating the linkage between HIF-1/2α and ORAI3. Additionally, colony-forming potential and cell migration capacity were decreased in siHIF-1α and siHIF-2α as well as siORAI3 cells, and the facilitating effect of ML228 on cell migration and colony-forming potential was also decreased in siORAI3 CW-2 cells, which points out the importance of ORAI3 in HIF1/2α pathway.

Conclusion

Our findings allow to conclude that both HIF-1α and HIF-2α facilitate ORAI3 expression, hence enhancing colon cancer progression.

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Objectives

Impaired intestinal barrier function has been demonstrated in the pathophysiology of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). This study aimed to describe the intestinal ultrastructural findings in the intestinal mucosal layer of IBS-D patients.

Methods

In total, 10 healthy controls and 10 IBS-D patients were analyzed in this study. The mucosa of each patient’s rectosigmoid colon was first assessed by confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE); next, biopsied specimens of these sites were obtained. Intestinal tissues of IBS-D patients and healthy volunteers were examined to observe cellular changes by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Results

CLE showed no visible epithelial damage or inflammatory changes in the colonic mucosa of IBS-D compared with healthy volunteers. On transmission electron microscopic examination, patients with IBS-D displayed a larger apical intercellular distance with a higher proportion of dilated (>20 nm) intercellular junctional complexes, which was indicative of impaired mucosal integrity. In addition, microvillus exfoliation, extracellular vesicle as well as increased presence of multivesicular bodies were visible in IBS-D patients. Single epithelial cells appeared necrotic, as characterized by cytoplasmic vacuolization, cytoplasmic swelling, and presence of autolysosome. A significant association between bowel habit, frequency of abdominal pain, and enlarged intercellular distance was found.

Conclusion

This study showed ultrastructural alterations in the architecture of intestinal epithelial cells and intercellular junctional complexes in IBS-D patients, potentially representing a pathophysiological mechanism in IBS-D.

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