The study was performed in order to evaluate Roundup-induced genotoxic effects in Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Madalin root meristems and to analyze herbicide impact on length growth of barley seedlings. Caryopses were treated for 3 hours and 6 hours with 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% Roundup solutions (v/v), containing 0.36 mg ml−1, 1.8 mg ml−1, 3.6 mg ml−1 and 7.2 mg ml−1 glyphosate active ingredient. Mitotic index decreased in both exposure times with concentration increase. In 3-h treatment, its average values decreased from 4.73 ± 0.31% to 1.51 ± 0.43%, whereas in 6-h treatment this parameter declined from 3.86 ± 0.92% to 0.62 ± 0.15%. The highest ana-telophase aberration rates were noted in 3-h treatments (8.91%, 9.19%, 9.47%, 11.25%, comparatively to control — 5.99%). Roundup enhanced the number of metaphase disturbances proving its noxious effect on normal functioning of mitotic spindle. Seedling growth was negatively influenced at all tested concentrations in both exposure times. The length decreased as concentration increased, so that the average length is 7.5–9 times smaller than in control at the maximum concentration, in both exposures.
The application of commercial rhizobial inoculants to legume crops is proving to be an alternative to synthetic fertilizer use. The challenge for sustainable agriculture resides in the compatibility between crop, inoculants and environmental conditions. The evaluation of symbiotic efficiency and genetic diversity of indigenous rhizobial strains could lead to the development of better inoculants and increased crop production. The genetic variability of 32 wild indigenous rhizobial isolates was assessed by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA). The strains were isolated from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) nodules from two distinct geographical regions of Northern and Eastern Romania. Three decamer primers were used to resolve the phylogenetic relationships between the investigated isolates. Cluster analysis revealed a high diversity; most strains clustered together based on their geographical location.