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A genomic library of Mucor circinelloides ATCC 1216b has been constructed in Lambda Fix II vector. The library has an average insert site of 10 kb and covers the genome 12 times. The M. circinelloides gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) was isolated from this library by hybridization of the recombinant phage clones with a gpd-specific gene probe generated by PCR reaction. The complete nucleotide sequence encodes a putative polypeptide chain of 339 amino acids interrupted by 3 introns. The predicted amino acid sequence of this gene shows a high degree of sequence similarity to the GPD proteins from other filamentous fungi. The promoter region, containing a consensus TATA and CAAT box and a 298 nucleotid long termination region were also determined.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
Ildikó Nyilasi
,
T. Papp
,
M. Takó
,
Erzsébet Nagy
, and
Cs. Vágvölgyi

Iron is an essential nutrient for most organisms because it serves as a catalytic cofactor in oxidation-reduction reactions. Iron is rather unavailable because it occurs in its insoluble ferric form in oxides and hydroxides, while in serum of mammalian hosts is highly bound to carrier proteins such as transferrin, so the free iron concentration is extremely low insufficient for microbial growth. Therefore, many organisms have developed different iron-scavenging systems for solubilizing ferric iron and transporting it into cells across the fungal membrane. There are three major mechanisms by which fungi can obtain iron from the host: (a) utilization of a high affinity iron permease to transport iron intracellularly, (b) production and secretion of low molecular weight iron-specific chelators (siderophores), (c) utilization of a hem oxygenase to acquire iron from hemin. Patients with elevated levels of available serum iron treated with iron chelator, deferoxamine to remedy iron overload conditions have an increased susceptibility of invasive zygomycosis. Presumably deferoxamine predisposes patients to Zygomycetes infections by acting as a siderophore. The frequency of zygomycosis is increasing in recent years and these infections respond very poorly to currently available antifungal agents, so new approaches to develop strategies to prevent and treat zygomycosis are urgently needed. Siderophores and iron-transport proteins have been suggested to function as virulence factors because the acquisition of iron is a crucial pathogenetic event. Biosynthesis and uptake of siderophores represent possible targets for antifungal therapy.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
István Nász
,
Éva Ádám
,
ANNA Lengyel
,
K. Ács
,
Zs. Kasza
,
M. Vastag
, and
Cs. Vágvölgyi
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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
L. Kredics
,
Zsuzsanna Antal
,
A. Szekeres
,
L. Hatvani
,
L. Manczinger
,
Cs. Vágvölgyi
, and
Erzsébet Nagy

Cellulolytic, xylanolytic, chitinolytic and b-1,3-glucanolytic enzyme systems of species belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma have been investigated in details and are well characterised. The ability of Trichoderma strains to produce extracellular proteases has also been known for a long time, however, the proteolytic enzyme system is relatively unknown in this genus. Fortunately, in the recent years more and more attention is focused on the research in this field. The role of Trichoderma proteases in the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi and nematodes has been demonstrated, and it is also suspected that they may be important for the competitive saprophytic ability of green mould isolates and may represent potential virulence factors of Trichoderma strains as emerging fungal pathogens of clinical importance. The aim of this review is to summarize the information available about the extracellular proteases of Trichoderma. Numerous studies are available about the extracellular proteolytic enzyme profiles of Trichoderma strains and about the effect of abiotic environmental factors on protease activities. A number of protease enzymes have been purified to homogeneity and some protease encoding genes have been cloned and characterized. These results will be reviewed and the role of Trichoderma proteases in biological control as well as their advantages and disadvantages in biotechnology will be discussed.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
A. Szekeres
,
B. Leitgeb
,
L. Kredics
,
Zsuzsanna Antal
,
L. Hatvani
,
L. Manczinger
, and
Cs. Vágvölgyi

Peptaibols and the related peptaibiotics are linear, amphipathic polypeptides. More than 300 of these secondary metabolites have been described to date. These compounds are composed of 5-20 amino acids and are generally produced in microheterogeneous mixtures. Peptaibols and peptaibiotics with unusual amino acid content are the result of non-ribosomal biosynthesis. Large multifunctional enzymes known as peptide synthetases assemble these molecules by the multiple carrier thiotemplate mechanism from a remarkable range of precursors, which can be N-methylated, acylated or reduced. Peptaibols and peptaibiotics show interesting physico-chemical and biological properties including the formation of pores in bilayer lipid membranes, as well as antibacterial, antifungal, occasionally antiviral activities, and may elicit plant resistance. The three-dimensional structure of peptaibols and pep­taibiotics is characterized predominantly by one type of the helical motifs a-helix, 310-helix and b-bend ribbon spiral. The aim of this review is to summarize the data available about the biosynthesis, biological activity and conformational properties of peptaibols and peptaibiotics described from Trichoderma species.

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The paper contains an overview of the results of the studies made on the truffle Terfezia terfezioides, particularly the investigations related to the associations of this fungus with plants. Twelve plant species originated from a natural habitat of the fungus were supposed to be connected with T. terfezioides based on the anatomy of the endogenous fungal structures in their roots. Aseptic experiments were carried out on modified MMN substrates with different phosphate concentrations to study the interaction of T. terfezioides with Robinia pseudoacacia and Helianthemum ovatum. The colonization of the roots of black locust was always weaker than that of Helianthemum. The main characteristics were the intracellular coiled, branched, frequently septated hyphae in dead root cells. The intercellular hyphae formed Hartig-net with finger like structures only in Helianthemum. the interactions could not be considered unambiguously as mycorrhizae. There was no difference between the RFLP profiles of the nr DNA ITS of nineteen fruit bodies collected at the same time from the habitat and the ITS of three randomly chosen specimens were identical on sequence level, too. These invariability makes to design species specific PCR primers possible to check unambiguously the host plants.

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