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Soy is increasingly used as a food additive. In women, it is recommended as an alternative to hormonal replacement therapy and/or a preventive agent against breast cancer and osteoporosis. Previous data revealed that rats fed on raw soybean diet developed pancreas hypertrophy and hyperplasia. An animal model was used in our experiment to examine the effects of raw soybean on parotid gland of rats. The purpose of this study was to light on the role of different neuropeptide-containing nerve fibres on changes in the acinar cells. The morphological structure and the neuropeptide-containing nerve fibers (NPY, GAL, SOM, SP, CGRP, VIP) of the glands were examined by light and electronmicroscopy. Significant increase of the organ weight was detected in the animals fed by raw soybean compared to control samples. Changes in the number of different neuropeptide-containing nerve fibres were various: Significant decrease in the NPY-immunoreactive (IR) and significant increase in the GAL-IR nerve fibres were observed. Slight but not significant increase in VIP-IR; and no changes in the other IR nerve fibres were found. The electronmicroscopic alterations of acinar cells were manifest, where a large number of undifferentiated glandular cells were seen among the acini. Some of these cells contained two nuclei and their cytoplasm contained only a few secretory granules. These granules were similar to those in the mucous cells but not to the serous ones. The results presented here provide direct morphological evidence for the role of raw soy on the density of different neuropeptide-containing nerve fibres inducing proliferation in the acinar cells of parotid glands from rats. It is suggested that the hypertrophic changes in the glands might be caused by the alterations of nerve fibres.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
E. Farkas
,
Á. Kiss
,
G. Fehér
,
B. Bolla
, and
E. Farkas
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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
A. Blázovics
,
E. Fehér
,
I. Kocsis
,
E. Rapavi
,
E. Székely
,
L. Váli
, and
K. Szentmihályi

In general, biologically active polyphenolic compounds have indirect lipid lowering effects, antioxidant properties and they can also eliminate the accumulated toxic metal elements in the liver in cases of hyperlipidemy. Because of all these, we studied the effect of Beiqishen tea on altered lipid metabolisms, redox parameters and on liver metal contents. Although it was expected, there was not any liver protecting activity of the Beiqishen tea extract in the hyperlipidemic rat model, which was proved by biochemical and morphological studies. The reason for our expectation was the significant polyphenol content of Beiqishen tea. Although, the detoxifying activity of tea polyphenols could be observed in hyperlipidemy, at the same time toxic metal element content (As, Mo, Ni, Pb and Cr) of the tea infusion accumulated in the liver in both normo- and hyperlipidemic rats.

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Book reviews

Editor: K. T. KISS

Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
B. Bolla
,
L. Lőkös
,
G. Fehér
,
T. Pelyhe
, and
E. Farkas
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In this study molecular markers linked to the Ry sto gene, which originates from the wild potato species Solanum stoloniferum and confers extreme resistance against PVY, were identified and the applicability of recently published Ry sto markers was analyzed. Three RAPD markers covering a total distance of 8.60 cM were detected in this experiment. The closest of these markers was located 0.53 cM from the gene. From among the published markers only one had diagnostic value in the experimental plant material, and mapped 2.95 cM from the gene, on the side opposite the RAPD markers developed in the present study. All the markers analyzed were present in Solanum stoloniferum accessions, irrespective of their resistance, indicating that these sequences are linked to the locus and not exclusively to the dominant allele of the Ry sto gene in the wild species. The inapplicability of several published markers indicates that the genetic background is decisive in this tetraploid and highly heterozygous species. This means that it may be necessary to develop markers from the breeding material itself, until the resistance gene is not cloned and cannot be used as a selection marker in marker-assisted selection.

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors:
E. Kiss
,
G. Kazinczi
,
J. Horváth
,
S. Kobza
,
T. Baranyi
,
M. Varga
,
B. Havasréti
, and
A. Fehér

Viruses caused severe yield losses of field cucumber in Hungary last years. Field surveys have been carried out on field cucumber to evaluate virus infection in the region of Gyor-Moson-Sopron county. Virus infection was determined on the basis of symptoms, biotest and with DAS-ELISA serological method for the presence of 15 viruses. The virus vector aphid flight was monitored by Moericke yellow water pan. On the basis of field surveys 100% virus infection has been observed in cucum­ber fields. Virus symptoms were various, depending on varieties, environ­men­tal factors, viruses and strains. Out of the viruses investigated only three [Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) (DTL serotype); Zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV) and Watermelon mosaic 2 potyvirus (WMV-2)] have been occurred on cucumber samples. Biological tests confirm­ed the results of DAS-ELISA. There was much difference, regarding the frequency of viruses. ZYMV was dominant in 1998, while CMV was dominant in 1999. The proportion of the complex infection was very high. Till now, besides CMV other viruses cannot be detected from weeds in cucumber ecosystems. The peak of aphid flight was in the middle of June and later a secondary peak was observed at the beginning of July, which coincided with the appearance of the first virus symptoms. Regarding, that cucumber production occurs in fields at the same place year by year, soil borne virus vectors may play important role in virus infection. To reduce virus infection we can suggest using of light summer oils, which prevents virus transmission by aphids. It is concluded that team work of virologists, pathologists, growers, technologists and the breeders is necessary to solve virus problems of field cucumber in Hungary.

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In in vitro studies it was detected that the juice from the choleretic black radish root had hydrogen donating and d-field element-chelating abilities. The juice exhibited strong reducing power property and radical scavenging effect in H2O2/∙OH luminol system.

With the help of short term animal experiment we examined the in vivo effect of Raphanus sativus root juice on hyperlipidemia in rats.

A chemiluminescent study was applied to determine the total scavenger activity (TSC) of erythrocytes and plasma of untreated and treated animals. We also determined the different liver enzyme activities: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and metabolite concentrations (cholesterol, triacylglycerols, total bilirubin, glucose) by spectrophotometry in the sera.

In our study, using experimental hyperlipidemic condition, it has been detected that black radish root juice could moderate the injurious effect of lipid rich diet in rats in vivo.

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