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  • Author or Editor: E. Gergely x
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Background/Aim: There is a limited number of methods to measure blood flow velocity in small veins. A cheap and simple new videomicroscopic method developed in our laboratories is described in the paper.Methods: A stretch of the saphenous vein of the rat was exposed by careful micropreparation on the thigh of anesthetized animals. Bolus amount (approx. 5 μl) of saline was infused into a small side branch through a microcannula to dilute flowing blood. Videomicroscopic picture of the vein was then taken of the exposed upstream stretch of the vein. Serial pictures were digitized and analyzed using macro functions of the Image J software. Sensitive areas of serial pictures were selected and fitted. Consecutive pictures were subtracted from each other to better characterize their alteration in-between frames. Greyscale intensity values measured at different points of the inner diameter were averaged for each point of the vessel axis. Cross-correlations along the axis were then computed for consecutive frames with delays of 40, 80, 120 and 160 msec. Pixel offsets producing cross-correlation maxima were determined and used to compute mean flow velocity.Results: Combination of digital subtraction and cross-correlation computations yielded easily identifiable maximums. Mean flow velocities could be determined with limited uncertainty.Conclusion: The described technique gives a cheap, simple and reproducible mean to determine mean blood flow velocities in small veins in anesthetized animals, where other current techniques (ultrasonography, laser-Doppler, fluorescently labelled red cell movement) are either expensive or can be applied with difficulty only.

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Background and aims

Celebrity worship, defined as an excessive admiration towards celebrities, has generated considerable research and public interest. A widely used assessment instrument to measure celebrity worship is the 23-item Celebrity Attitude Scale. However, concerns have been raised regarding the measurement, including the inconsistent factor structure and lack of a cut-off point to identify “celebrity worshipers”. The present study aims to address these concerns by testing the psychometric appropriateness of a short, 7-item version of the CAS (i.e., CAS-7) and estimating the prevalence of individuals with high-level celebrity admiration using a representative sample of Hungarian adults (between 18 and 64 years of age) according to gender, age, geographic location, and size of residence.


The total sample comprised 2028 respondents, of which 769 valid responses were administered from participants who reported having a favorite celebrity (51.11% men, M age = 36.38 years, SD = 13.36).


Results indicated an excellent model fit for the two-factor and bifactor model of the CAS-7. Based on the suggested cut-off score of 26, the prevalence of high-level celebrity admiration is 4.53% in the Hungarian adult population (18–64 years of age) and 8.51% among young adults (18–34 years of age). Individuals with this high level of admiration towards a favorite celebrity reported more symptoms of problematic Internet use, depression, anxiety, and stress than individuals with general celebrity admiration levels.

Discussion and conclusions

The CAS-7 demonstrated sound psychometric properties, confirming its applicability in research and practice.

Open access