The reproducibility and reliability of the TA Instruments Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimeter (MDSC) was tested over
a range of conditions. The equipment base line was found to be fairly constant with a very small fluctuation (10 μW), which
means a 0.1 % fluctuation on the scale of a normal polymer MDSC curve. The excellent stability of the base line and the reasonable
reproducibility of the curves (5%) suggest that frequent calibration is not required.
The heat capacities calculated from the modulated response to the variable temperature depend on the frequency for a given
cell constant. The heat capacity cell constant is a unique function of the modulation frequency:kc=Kcop/(p−6.3) wherep is the time of the periodicity expressed in seconds and Kco is the heat capacity cell constant measured on a standard material and reduced to zero frequency. The cell constants depend
on the flow rate of the helium according to:K(He)=Ko(1.298−0.004424He+1.438·10−5He2) whereHe is the flow rate of helium in ml min−1 andKo represents a constant at 100 cm3 min−1. There is a strong dependence of cell constant on the flow rate ranges from 10 to 80 cm3 min−1, while above this rate (up to 135 ml min−1) the cell constant approaches a plateau.
Annealing experiments have been carried out at a few degrees below the melting point of different polyethylenes (LDPE, LLDPE,
HDPE), of polypropylene (PP) and of Nylon-6. The heat capacities decrease during the annealing, within a 2-4 min time scale,
to a lower value which corresponds to the extrapolated heat capacity values obtained for the cooling cycle when the polymer
is cooled from the melt. Heat capacities in the heating cycle following the cooling cycle of PP, Nylon-6 and HDPE have the
same value as during the cooling section. This is not the case for LDPE and LLDPE.
Exothermic total heat flow in the cooling section following the annealing indicates that the crystallisation takes place during
the cooling rather than during the annealing period. The total melting enthalpy measured before and after the annealing cycle
is the same.
The reversing heat flow shows an excellent fit to the change of the crystallinity measured by small angle scattering of synchrotron
radiation during a heating cycle at temperatures below the melting peak.
A coupled thermodynamic interaction of the crystalline and the amorphous phases is concluded from this study. This kind of
interaction is possible at the lateral end of polymeric chains incorporated into the crystalline phase. This is an indication
of the portion of tie molecules in the system, i.e. the portion of fringed micelle type of crystalline morphology with respect
to that of folded chain lamellae.
Flavonoid glycosides are much more polar than their aglycones and the two groups of compounds are difficult to separate by planar chromatography owing to the ‘general elution problem’ — glycosides require development with mobile phases of higher eluent strength. The problem of separating both groups can be solved by gradient elution or by incremental gradient multiple development in its simplest form — double development. The latter technique is illustrated for nine glycosides and seven aglycones by development along two-thirds of the plate length with a strong mobile phase and, after evaporation of the solvent, development to the full distance with a weaker mobile phase. The two stages of development are illustrated by densitograms.
Recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (R-PET) was chain extended with pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) in a commercial size
twin-screw reactive extrusion system. Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) was used to evaluate
the effect of the chain extension process on the thermal transitions and crystallinity of R-PET. Reactive extruded recycled
PET (RER-PET) samples were tested based on different PMDA concentration and reactive extrusion residence times. The glass
transition temperature (Tg) did not show a significant change as a function of PMDA addition or the extrusion residence time. Melting temperature (Tm) and crystallisation temperature (Tc) decreased with increasing PMDA concentration and with increasing extrusion residence time. RER-PET samples showed double
melting peaks, it is believed that different melting mechanism is the reason behind this phenomenon. The crystallinity of
RER-PET samples is lower than that of R-PET. RER-PET samples at constant PMDA concentration showed a decrease in crystallinity
with increasing extrusion residence time. Results suggest that the reactive extrusion process is more dependent on PMDA concentration
rather than reactive extrusion process residence time.