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Often less than optimal PUFA content of human diet have started the research aimed to increase its quantity in meats. Including linseed and sunflower oil in rabbit feed effectively improves rabbit meat lipid composition, but its altered sensitivity to oxidative reactions could result in colour change. The effect of vegetable oil content of the diet and vitamin E supplementation was studied on the colour of rabbit loin and thigh meats and dissected fat. Meat lightness, redness, yellowness, hue and chromacity were measured with Minolta chromameter on samples cooled to 5 °C for 24 h. Including sunflower (2%) and linseed (2%) oil in rabbit diet changed the colour of the dissected fat making it lighter (L* 76.96 v. 73.79), more yellowish (b* 13.34 v. 11.41) and intense (C* 14.49 v. 12.35) coloured compared to the control diet without vegetable oils. To the effect of the vitamin E supplementation of vegetable oil containing feed redness of the thigh decreased (a* 4.41 v 5.44) and hue increased (h° 58.63 v. 49.76). The source of vitamin E supplement influenced only the colour of loin: natural vitamin E increased lightness (L* 53.03 v. 49.62), yellowness (3.86 v. 3.04) and chromacity (3.96 v. 3.25) while synthetic vitamin E did not. The changes of loin, thigh and fat colour observed in this study may be utilized in making the product more desirable to the consumer.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
G. Kovács
,
J. Schmidt
,
F. Husvéth
,
K. Dublecz
,
L. Wágner
, and
E. Farkas-Zele
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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
A. Bagdi
,
G. Balázs
,
J. Schmidt
,
M. Szatmári
,
R. Schoenlechner
,
E. Berghofer
, and
S. Tömösközia

Six varieties of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) and two commercially available millets were investigated in the present study. In order to explore the nutritional potential, major nutrient composition, mineral composition, antioxidant capacity, total phenols content (related to the antioxidant capacity) and dietary fibre content were determined. The effects of decortication on these components were examined. In addition, protein profile of the varieties and amylose/amylopectin ratio of the starch were examined. The range of the values measured for major nutrient composition corresponds with data of other millet species published in earlier studies. Remarkable differences were found among the protein contents of the varieties (11.58–14.80%). Although the concentration of minerals was low in the varieties examined, in comparison with other cereals wholegrain millet seems to be nutritionally valuable because of their high dietary fibre content. Decortication had no effect on the protein and fat content of millets, however, it significantly decreased the content of crude fibre, dietary fibre, minerals, total phenols content and antioxidant capacity. Consequently the applicability of millets as functional food decreases. Decortication had no effect on the amylose/amylopectin ratio of millet. No varietal differences were found in terms of protein characteristics.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
J. Csapó
,
J. Schmidt
,
Zs. Csapó-Kiss
,
G. Holló
,
I. Holló
,
L. Wágner
,
É. Cenkvári
,
É. Varga-Visi
,
G. Pohn
, and
G. Andrássy-Baka

In the past years several methods have been developed for the determination of the proportion of the nitrogen-containing substances of microbial origin passed from the rumen into the abomasum or the small intestine. Recently, on examining the D-amino acid content of foodstuffs, particularly milk and milk products, it has been observed that, in addition to D-Ala, D- glutamic acid (D-Glu) and D-aspartic acid (D-Asp) can also be detected in similar quantities, primarily in products which have links with bacterial activity. This gave rise to the idea of examining the diaminopimelic acid (DAPA), D-Glu and D-Asp content of bacteria extracted from the rumen of cattle and that of chyme from the same cattle, in order to determine the type of relation existing among these three components, and to establish whether D-Asp and D-Glu can be used in the estimation of protein of bacterial origin. On determination of the DAPA, D-Asp and D-Glu content by means of amino acid analyser and high performance liquid chromatography of duodenal chyme from five growing bulls and of ruminal bacteria from the same bulls, the following values were established. For chyme (and, in brackets, for ruminal bacteria) r value calculated by means of linear regression was 0.78 (0.76) between DAPA and D-Asp, and 0.70 (0.81) between DAPA and D-Glu. The r values between the crude protein content of ruminal bacteria and the markers examined were found to be the following: DAPA, 0.74; D-Asp, 0.73; D- Glu, 0.61. In the model experiment performed for the re-obtaining of values for protein of bacterial origin the theoretical values were determined on the basis of D-Asp and D-Glu and values approximately 10% higher than the theoretical value on the basis of DAPA. It is therefore recommended that in addition to DAPA these other two amino acids be included among the bacterial protein markers.

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