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  • Author or Editor: Erzsébet Molnár x
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Social Position and Dress in the Kiskunság Region in the 18th-19th Centuries - The article gives a glimpse into the dress culture of the Kiskun District that existed from the late 17th century to 1876, located in the region between the Rivers Danube and Tisza. Drawing on research in archives, it examines the costumes worn by women and men in the different social strata and the regulations governing dress. The manner of dress that developed as a result of the bans and regulations can be reconstructed from the documents of litigation, wills, inventories of estates and reports by the board of guardians. Using examples taken from this archive material the author presents several festive and everyday costumes, showing that dress had the function of indicating status. She concludes that the leaders of local society used the regulations on dress to support the preservation of external appearances reflecting social status.

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Abstract

Based on archival documents and supplementary ethnographic collections, this study reviews the autonomous community customs and legal traditions of the Jászkun people, starting in the 17th century and autonomously evolving among the jász [Jassic] and kun [Cuman] people in Hungary for centuries and preserved in certain peculiar Jászkun terms and vernacular expressions up until the 20th century. In view of legal ethnography and activity-oriented social history, my study has been divided into four parts: Kun, Jász, Jászkun; Legal customs and customary law before the Redemption (1745); The legal culture of the Jászkun District after the Redemption; The enacted customary law of the Jászkun: the Jászkun Statute. I specifically focused on the 18th century, for at the end of it the Jászkun Statute, the written customary law of the district, approved by the palatine, had been promulgated. The statute incorporated the legal customs practiced by the people of the Jászkun District before 1799 and facilitated the long-term survival of the specific unique features of local society and the high degree of differentiation of their legal practice. The customary laws of the Jászkun are history now, but in more than one aspect they still affect the everyday lives of late descendants.

Open access

Abstract

The site of Tiszagyenda-Búszerző dűlő became known during the archaeological and field surveys prior to the construction of the Tiszaroff Dam. The site covered the northern part of a large contiguous Migration Period settlement, the southern extents of which were discovered within the same project.

The settlement occupying both banks of the Tisza River's backwater had been inhabited for centuries. The first settlers in the Bronze Age (leaving behind three burials) were followed by the Sarmatians (seven burials), Gepids (nineteen burials), Avars (seven burials) and finally tribes of Hungarian conquerors (81 burials). Besides of the linear graveyards of common people, solitary, richly-furnished graves of the Gepid and the Avar Periods were also found.

The solitary grave of an armed man was unearthed on the west bank of the Tisza's backwater. His horse and his dog, cut in half and thrown over the horse, were buried a couple steps away in a separate grave. Grave No. 1660 is of especially outstanding archaeological value. Dated by the solidus of Byzantian Emperor Maurikios Tiberius (582–602), the grave held rich finds decorated with Early Christian symbols. The mounts of the swordbelt and his belt-set refer to Lombard and Merovingian connections. The Gepid-Germanic warrior of Gyenda was buried in the early Avar period after the collapse of the Gepid Kingdom in 567–568, in the first decade of the 7th century.

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