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The recurrence of certain musical ideas from piece to piece can be considered as one of the main characteristic features of Kurtág's music. These recurring ideas create a web between the different groups of compositions which should span over even more decades in his oeuvre. This essay follows the path of two musical materials which are associated with Hölderlin's name in Kurtág's music and at the same time, are closely connected with each other.The members of the first group of compositions examined ('Hölderlin' the 3rd out of  Four Songs to János Pilinszky's Poems, op. 11, - Study to 'Hölderlin”, Játékok IV,   - Sketch to Hölderlin, Játékok VII) are homogeneous pieces characterized by the exclusiveness of the Hölderlin topos. The three compositions can be considered as variants of each other. The members of the other group (The Székely Mangle, Nr. 2 out of Three Old Inscriptions - Preface to a Bálint Exhibition, Játékok V - Lebenslauf op. 32 and the 1st movement of Stele op. 33) however, are aesthetically autonomous, independent works and the Hölderlin topos is only one of their formal constituents. The musical form itself develops from the confrontation of the toposwith a new material. This essay tries to find an answer to the question how the role of the Hölderlin toposchanges in the form and dramaturgy of each individual composition.

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Johann Evangelist Fuss (1777-1819) war unter den Komponisten Ungarns seiner Zeit der begabteste Pfleger der Liedgattung, der sich in seinen besten Momenten an ein mit den großen Meistern vergleichbaren Niveau annäherte. Das Liedkomponieren bedeutete wohl das ergiebigste Gebiet in der Komponistenlaufbahn von Fuss. Zwischen 1808 und 1818 erschienen von ihm 10 Werke und 8 Einzelausgaben, insgesamt 36 Lieder. Bisher kennt man von ihm lediglich ein einziges Lied, das ausschließlich handschriftliche Verbreitung fand. Nach einem chronologischen Überblick der Fuss-Lieder gibt der Verfasser eine Formtypologie der Lieder unter Berücksichtigung der verschiedenen Gattungen, die innerhalb des Sammelbegriffs „Lied“ vorstellbar sind (14 Notenbeispiele).

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Accepting the dates in the short version of Eusebius of Caesarea's De martyribus Palestinae as correct and assuming that in defining the holidays and the days of the week the author followed the Christian calendar of Caesarea - which was not identical with the Roman one - it seems likely that the martyr Apphianus was executed not on a simple Friday (MP rec. brev. 4, 15: ἡμέρᾳ παρασκευῆς), but on Good Friday (ἡμέρᾳ Παρασκευῆς).

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If on the evidence of the manuscript we accept it as a fact that the Historia Syntomos ( HS ) was written by Psellus, we are presented with two historical works ( HS and Chronographia ) written by the same author (Psellus) in the same genre ( historia ) in two different styles (middle and simple style), which the Byzantine reader or the modern scholar can read and interpret as one historical work. In his HS Psellus briefly and superficially describes the style of Leo the Wise and of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, and in connection with the latter he observes that rhetorical devices can be and are used in texts that are not written in the literary language. Though this statement might seem obvious for us, it did not appear so for a Byzantine rhetor.

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The paper examines Westerink’s edition of Psellos’s poems, their place in the sequence of his work and their authenticiy. A new approach to some of these poems is discussed as well, i.e. the question of treating poems this far considered to be separate items ( epigr . 34 a–e) as one single poem of six lines.

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In his youth Bela III, king of Hungary (1172-1196) lived in Constantinople as the betrothed of the emperor Manuel Comnenus' daughter and was appointed to be heir to the Byzantine throne. There he was called Alexius probably owing to an oracle, according to which Manuel's successor's name would start with the letter alpha. However, when a son - also named Alexius - was born to Manuel, he had him crowned co-emperor and had the betrothal of Bela and Maria dissolved on the pretext of a ruling of the 1166 Synod of Constantinople, which banned marriage between relations by marrige to the seventh degree. It is this ruling that is referred to in a sentence in Cinnamus, which has been ignored this far because of the assumption that Bela and Maria were related in the eighth degree. As a matter of fact, they were related in the seventh degree by the marriage of the Hungarian king Stephen IV and Maria Comnena, daughter of Isaac Sebastokrator.

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In his discussion about the Biblical paraphrases written by the two Apolinarii Socrates Scholasticus claims that the study of pagan literature is necessary for the Christians. He starts by proving the harmlessness of studying Greek philosophy and comes to the conclusion that far from being harmful it is actually desirable, since familiarity with Greek philosophy (especially with logic) enables the Christians to argue against the pagans more effectively. Socrates, a lawyer from Constantinople is not averse to a little prevarication, neither is he accurate when he is writing about the purpose and contents of Julian's edict (362), which throws a bad light on the reliability of the church historian. The fact that Socrates' argument for Greek paideia was timely at the beginning of the fifth century proves the vitality of paganism and Greek philosophy on the one hand, and the antipathy of certain groups of Christians (especially monks) towards pagan culture on the other.

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Egy epigramma (poem. 86 Westerink), egy szentéletrajz (Vita Auxentii) és a kortörténet (Chronographia) néhány szemelvényének elemzésével a tanulmány azt mutatja be, hogy a szónoki képzés során oktatott beszédgyakorlatok (összehasonlítás, jellemábrázolás, leírás) hogyan jelennek meg a bizánci szónok, Michaél Psellos irodalmi műveiben, akinek történetírását különösen a korban fokozatosan átalakuló műfajban, a kortörténetben alkalmazott jellemrajzok teszik egyedivé.

Analysing an epigram (poem. 86 Westerink) and passages from the Life of St Auxentius and Chronographia the paper focuses on how the rhetorical exercises (comparison, personification, description) used in the course of oratorical studies appear in the literary works of the Byzantine writer, Michael Psellus. It is the device of characterization applied in the gradually developing genre of historia what makes Psellus’ opus magnum, an account of contemporary Byzantine history, truly unique.

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