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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
Tamás Hermann
,
András Makó
,
Ferenc Máté
,
Gergely Tóth
, and
Zoltán Tóth
Restricted access

Abstract

Consumption of infected plant tissues by decomposing organisms is an important part of ecosystem services. We tested how the common woodlouse (Porcellionides pruinosus, Isopoda: Oniscidea) may contribute to the decomposition process in a laboratory experiment in which Mycosphaerella pyri-infected pear leaves with or without the aecia of Gymnosporangium sabinae were offered as food. We recorded the loss of healthy and infected leaf tissues. Isopod survival rate was also monitored. We found (1) a certain pattern of preference in the consumption of infected leaf material; and (2) that the presence of G. sabinae reduced leaf consumption but had no effect on the ingestion of Mycosphaerella-infected spots; and (3) the mortality of P. pruinosus was adversely influenced by G. sabinae, but the results were highly dependent on confinement conditions. Our results suggest that woodlice consume plant pathogenic fungi, and therefore offer the ecosystem service of neutralizing infective plant remnants during decomposition.

Open access
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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
Tibor Tóth
,
Szergej Vinogradov
,
Tamás Hermann
,
Ferenc Speiser
, and
Tamás Németh
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Semi-natural grassland islands have a key role in slowing down biodiversity decline in intensively cultivated agricultural landscapes. Assemblages in such habitat patches are not only limited by local habitat quality, but are also influenced by the suitability and distribution of different habitat types in the surrounding landscape. If we want to preserve a functionally diverse Lepidoptera fauna, both local and landscape scale environmental effects, including land use and management, should be considered. In the present study, we describe trait-based characteristics of noctuid dominated macro-moth assemblages (MMAs) in grassland remnants of an intensively cultivated agricultural area. By gathering environmental data from local to landscape scales, we aimed to identify the most influential scales, possible interactions between scales and the role of integrated arable fields in shaping MMAs. We conducted abundance weighted trait-based multivariate analysis of the assemblages based on six trait groups. Both local and landscape scale variables had important influence, acting on different traits of the assemblages. By variance partitioning, we could identify variables that exerted maximal effect at 50 m and 250 m radii circles. Variables describing local vegetation and identity of neighbouring crop were responsible for species richness and rarity status, while the area of arable and wooded habitats within 250 m were responsible for total catch and pest status related traits. There was significant interaction between principal components axes representing local and landscape variables. Rarity, more than other traits, was influenced by the interaction. Integrated fields had no effect on MMAs. The present study highlights the contributions of both local and landscape scales to the shaping of MMAs and suggests that the preservation of both local habitat quality and landscape heterogeneity are important if we would like to maintain species rich and functionally diverse Lepidoptera fauna.

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Tamás Csurka
,
Klára Pásztor-Huszár
,
Adrienn Tóth
,
Richárd Pintér
, and
László Ferenc Friedrich

Abstract

Blood coagulation is a process, which is initiated by certain physico-chemical effects. This process results in a change in the blood from the sol state, that is well suited for further processing, to gel state. 13 blood clotting factors take part in the cascade system of blood coagulation. Trisodium-citrate affects factor IV, the calcium, and prevents the change in blood texture. The effect of different concentrations of trisodium-citrate (0, 0.48, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, 14.4, 19.2, 24 w/w%) on the texture of blood is investigated. Porcine blood was collected in 20 cm3 test tubes in a slaughterhouse directly before trisodium-citrate addition and was stored for one day under refrigerated conditions. The samples without trisodium-citrate coagulated and the samples with high trisodium-citrate (4–5 g) became solid as well because of the protein salting-out. The viscosity of successfully treated samples and the shear stress were measured with a rotational viscometer (Physica MCR 51, Anton-Paar) with concentric cylinders and Couette type method. The flow behavior of all samples could be described by the Herschel-Bulkley model. The yield point, the consistency index and the power of law index, which are determined by the equation of the model, showed that the samples with lower trisodium-citrate content coagulated “better” and the sample with high trisodium-citrate were most similar to Newtonian fluid. The results are trend-likes, but significant differences may be expected in the case of higher sample amount. The yield point of the sample, which contained 14.4 w/w% trisodium-citrate, was by 37.3% less than the sample containing 0.48% trisodium-citrate, and the consistency index of the sample with 3 g trisodium-citrate was by 20.5% higher than that of the sample with 0.48% trisodium-citrate. Thanks to these results a cheaper concentration and drying of porcine blood and blood fractions are available because no surplus water is added to the blood.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Emna Ayari
,
Csaba Németh
,
Karina Ilona Hidas
,
Adrienn Tóth
,
Dávid Láng
, and
László Friedrich

Abstract

Starting from mechanical revolution, each day new methods and new equipment have emerged. Today, the Ultra Heat Treatment (UHT) is one of the important technologies that permits to the industry to reduce processing time while maintaining the same quality of the products. Egg and egg products are known as heat-sensitive products, so the UHT enables us to preserve their qualities after a heat treatment.

Our aim is to study the effect of UHT treatment (approximately 67 °C for 190 s) on the Liquid Egg Yolk (LEY). For twenty-one days, the color and the apparent viscosity were measured every seven days, we also studied the damage of protein using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry).

Comparing the two graphs of DSC, the denaturation of protein is distinct. The endothermic peak decreased. This could be seen also on the rheological curves. The apparent viscosity is diminished from 231 mPa.s on the 1st day of storage to 224 mPa.s on 21st day. However, the treated LEY could be stored for longer period than the raw LEY.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Karina Ilona Hidas
,
Csaba Németh
,
Anna Visy
,
Adrienn Tóth
,
László Ferenc Friedrich
, and
Ildikó Csilla Nyulas-Zeke

Abstract

Eggs are commonly used in the food industry because of their excellent nutrient value and also for their coagulating, foaming, emulsifying, colouring and flavouring properties. Manufacturers substitute shell eggs with processed egg products, such as liquid whole egg, liquid egg yolk or albumin. They have a shelf life of a few weeks, but freezing can increase it to 1 year. However, freezing causes gelation in case of egg yolk. This process is highly dependent on the conditions of freezing and thawing.

In our study, raw liquid egg yolk was frozen and stored for 14 days at −18 °C. On days 1, 7 and 14 samples were thawed by two different methods. Denaturation temperature and enthalpy were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. Besides, rheological properties were examined at 20 °C, Herschel–Bulkley model was fitted to flow curves of the examined samples. The dry matter content was also recorded during the experiment. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyse data.

The results of the study showed that method of thawing had no significant effect on calorimetric and rheological properties and dry matter content. In contrast, freezing and frozen storage had a significant effect on denaturation enthalpy and rheological properties.

Open access