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  • Author or Editor: Günhan Börekç x
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According to proponents of the “Military Revolution” theory, musketry volley fire was among the military innovations that fundamentally altered early modern field warfare. The origins of European volley fire date back to the 1590s, but no western army, with the possible exception of the Dutch in 1600, was able to use this tactic in action until the 1620s. Furthermore, it has been thus far assumed that the Ottomans failed to adopt this new tactic and thus experienced setbacks in the face of their European adversaries during this period. By utilising hitherto overlooked Ottoman narrative and visual sources, this article first shows that the Janissaries were indeed using volley fire in action in 1605, and possibly before. Secondly, it raises questions about the origins of Ottoman volley fire, which are currently unclear. Overall, the Janissaries' use of this tactic during the Long War not only affects our understanding of Ottoman warfare but also necessitates a reassessment of the patterns of invention and diffusion of military innovations in the early modern period.

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