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Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 11 morphometric body measurements of the hybrids of silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) including body weight (BW), standard length (SL), body depth (BD), body thickness (BT), head length (HL), head depth (HD), length of ventral keel (LVK), length of pectoral fin (Lpec), length of pelvic fin (Lpel), length of caudal fin (Lcau) and space between pectoral and pelvic fins (SPP) were located on the sex average microsatellite linkage map constructed using the hybrids of a female bighead and a male silver carp, on which 15 microsatellites were newly mapped. One locus was found to be responsible for BW, LV K and SPP, respectively. As many as 6 loci were found to be responsible for HD. The variances of remaining traits were partitioned by different numbers of loci varying between 2 and 5. The variance explained each locus ranged from 9.1% to 23.8% of the total. The variance explained by all loci responsible for each measurement ranged from 17.7% to 75.1%. It was noted that multiple measurements were mapped on the same locus. For example, a region bounded by Hym435 and Hym145 was found to be responsible for all the measurements analyzed.

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Global rice supplies have been found contaminated with unapproved varieties of genetically modified (GM) rice in recent years, which has led to product recalls in several of countries. Faster and more effective detection of GM contamination can prevent adulterated food, feed and seed from being consumed and grown, minimize the potential environmental, health or economic damage. In this study, a simple, reliable and cost-effective multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for identifying genetic modifications of TT51-1, Kemingdao1 (KMD1) and Kefeng6 (KF6) rice was developed by using the event-specific fragment. The limit of detection (LOD) for each event in the multiplex PCR is approximately 0.1%. Developed multiplex PCR assays can provide a rapid and simultaneous detection of GM rice.

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Wheat yellow rust resistance gene Yr17 was originated from the wheat-Aegilops ventricosa introgression, and still effective on the adult plant in Southern China. The previous studies located the gene Yr17 on the translocation of 2NS-2AS using the molecular and cytological markers. In the present study, we screened new PCR-based markers to map the gene Yr17 region from the investigation of a segregating 120 F2 population. All markers including four EST-PCR markers, a SCAR (sequence characterized amplified region) and a PLUG (PCR based landmark unique gene) marker specific to Yr17 gene were mapped on the chromosome 2AS, and located on the chromosomal deletion bin 2AS5-0.8–1.00 region. Based on the wheat-rice collinearity, we found that the sequences of the Yr17 gene linked markers were comparatively matched at rice chromosome 4 and chromosome 7. However, the identified closely linked genomic sequence of Yr17 gene is most likely collinear with genomic region of rice chromosome 4. The newly produced PCR based markers closely linked to Yr17 gene will be useful for the marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding for rust resistance.

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The effects of sowing date, nitrogen application level and timing on barley protein components and malt quality were investigated. There was a significant difference in total protein and its protein fractions among the four barley genotypes. The protein component was changeable over the different growing conditions, and the extent of change varied with protein fraction and genotype. Marked variation in malt quality over the different environments (sowing date, N fertilizer rate and applying time) was also observed. Increased N fertilizer application increased diastatic power (DP) value, but reduced malt extract. Grain protein content was significantly and positively correlated with albumin, globulin and hordein, but was not correlated with glutelin. However, glutelin was significantly related to other malt quality parameters.

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Three wheat varieties of Atlas66 (Al-tolerant genotype), EM12 (a major elite cultivar in China) and Scout66 (Al-sensitive genotype) were used to investigate their potential mechanisms of Al toxicity. Al concentrations of 50, 75, 100 μmol l −1 were used and the inhibition on root elongation between Scout66 and EM12 is significantly higher than that of Al-tolerant Atlas66, which is negative correlated to the Al absorption in root apices. Organic acids secretion was checked 24 h after Al stress and only malate was detected in Atlas66, but none of the organic acids were detected in the others, suggesting that secretion of malate in root is a major mechanism of Al resistance in Al-tolerant wheat genotype. The root cell ultrastructure showed less damage in Atlas66 than that in Scout66 and EM12 under Al stress by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. Tissue culture was carried out and the callus induction frequencies were all decreased on the media containing Al. The decrease of callus induction frequencies was less in Atlas66 than that in the others. It is concluded that Al damages the cell ultrastructure, resulting in the inhibition of acids secretion and cell division, which implies that the damage of cell ultrastructure is probably the key factor in Al inhibition of root growth.

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Knowledge of the chromosomal distribution of long terminal repeats (LTR) is important for understanding plant chromosome structure, genomic organization and evolution, as well as providing chromosomal landmarks that are useful for chromosome engineering. The aim of this study is to investigate the genomic distribution of Sabrina -like LTR pDbH12, which was first isolated from Dasypyrum breviaristatum (V b genome), on Triticeae species in relation to the genomic evolution and chromosome identification. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed that pDbH12 is present on Dasypyrum (V genome) and Hordeum (H genome) species with the hybridized signals covering the entire chromosomes. However, clone pDbH12 did not hybridize to the genomes of Secale, Triticum, Lophopyrum, Pseduoroengeria, Aegilops, Agropyron desertorum and Elymus. Thinopyrum intermedium displayed fourteen chromosomes that hybridized with pDbH12. Sequential FISH identified these chromosomes as belonging to the J s genome. Results from sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker and dot blot both support the FISH results, and the integrative results suggest that amplification of Sabrina -like LTR retrotransposons is an important factor which involved in the speciation process. Clone pDbH12 could serve as a cytogenetic marker for tracing chromatin from V or V b , H and J s genomes in wheat-alien introgression lines.

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Rye (Secale cereale) plays an important role in wheat improvement. Here we report a new triticale, named Fenzhi-1, derived from the wide cross MY11 (Triticum aestivum) × Jingzhou (Secale cereale) after the in vitro rye pollen has been irradiated by He-Ne laser. Morphologically, Fenzhi-1 is characterized by branched-spikes. Genetically, Fenzhi-1 displays stable fertility and immunity to wheat powdery mildew and stripe rust. In situ hybridization (FISH) and seed storage protein electrophoresis revealed that Fenzhi-1 is a new primary hexaploid triticale (AABBRR). The present study not only provides a new method to synthesize an artificial species, but also shows that Fenzhi-1 could be a valuable source for wheat improvement.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
H. Yu
,
Y. Yang
,
X.Y. Chen
,
G.X. Lin
,
J.Y. Sheng
,
J.Y. Nie
,
Q.J. Wang
,
E.J. Zhang
,
X.R. Yu
,
Z. Wang
, and
F. Xiong

The waxy wheat shows special starch quality due to high amylopectin content. However, little information is available concerning the development and degradation of amyloplast from waxy wheat endosperm. To address this problem, waxy wheat variety, Yangnuo 1, and a non-waxy wheat variety, Yangmai 13, were chosen to investigate the development and degradation of endosperm amyloplast during wheat caryopsis development and germination stage respectively using histochemical staining and light microscopy. Changes of morphology, the soluble sugar and total starch content were indistinguishable in the process of caryopsis development of two wheat varieties. The developing endosperm of non-waxy was stained blue-black by I2-KI while the endosperm of waxy wheat was stained reddish-brown, but the pericarp of waxy and non-waxy wheat was stained blue-black. In contrast to nonwaxy wheat, endosperm amyloplast of waxy wheat had better development status and higher proportion of small amyloplast. During seed germination many small dissolution pores appeared on the surface of endosperm amyloplast and the pores became bigger and deeper until amyloplast disintegrated. The rate of degradation of waxy wheat endosperm amyloplast was faster than non-waxy wheat. Our results may also be helpful to the use of waxy starch in food and nonfood industry.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
C.Y. Zhou
,
Q.W. Cheng
,
T. Chen
,
L.L. Meng
,
T.G. Sun
,
B. Hu
,
J. Yang
, and
D.Y. Zhang

Abstract

To study the feasibility of evaluating the quality characteristics of banana based on the browning area. The texture characteristics, total soluble solids (TSS), ascorbic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, relative conductivity, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities in banana peels were detected during storage. A linear model was made by principal component analysis and multiple linear regression between the banana browning area and characteristic indices. The results showed that the changes in the physiological characteristics of bananas were significantly different during different storage periods. The main factors that affected the banana browning area were relative conductivity, PAL, TSS, and MDA, indicating that lipid peroxidation, respiration, and metabolism of phenylpropanoids had significant influence on the banana browning area during storage. Thus, it is feasible to predict banana quality based on changes in browning area, which could be a rapid and non-destructive detection of banana quality during storage.

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Abstract

This study aimed to explore the inhibitory effect and mechanism of the total alkaloids of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (DENA) against cholesterol esterase (CE). DENA was characterised by SEM, 1H NMR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The inhibitory effect and mechanism of DENA against CE were investigated through fluorescence chromatography, circular dichroism, and molecular docking. DENA inhibited CE activity (IC50 = 1.08 ± 0.09 mg mL−1), characterised by a non-competitive inhibition mechanism. Furthermore, DENA induced a fluorescence quenching in CE, causing a blue shift in the λmax. This coincided with a transition in the secondary structure of CE from a layered to a helical structure by circular dichroism, indicating a significant reduction in its stability. Moreover, molecular docking confirmed that DENA binds to amino acid residues in the enzyme through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions, leading to structural changes and reduced enzyme activity. These results suggest DENA has the potential to lower blood lipid levels by inhibiting CE activity.

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