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  • Author or Editor: G. Kozma x
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Abstract

In our days, energy issues belong to the most important problems facing the Earth and the solution may be expected partly from decreasing the amount of the energy used and partly from the increased utilisation of renewable energy resources. A substantial part of energy consumption is related to buildings and includes, inter alia, the use for cooling/heating, lighting and cooking purposes. In the view of the above, special attention has been paid to minimising the energy consumption of buildings since the late 1980s. Within the framework of that, the passive house was created, a building in which the thermal comfort can be achieved solely by postheating or postcooling of the fresh air mass without a need for recirculated air.

The aim of the paper is to study the changes in the construction of passive houses over time. In addition, the differences between the geographical locations and the observable peculiarities with regard to the individual building types are also presented.

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The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the tendencies of development in the construction industry, one of the most important foundations of economic development, between 2000 and 2012. The key findings of the study may be summarized in the following:

– In the period between the 2000 and 2012, after the increasing tendency that could be observed in the first half of the first decade in the new millennium, a significant drop occurred both in terms of the value of production and the number of employees in the construction industry.

– From the three subsectors of the construction industry, it was the construction of buildings on which the economic crisis that started in 2008 had a negative impact.

– The territorial tendencies of the construction industry were influenced by large-scale infrastructural investments (motorway construction, railway network development).

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The development of an efficient procedure for 3d modeling and finite element simulation of metal foams is one of the greatest challenges for engineer researchers nowadays. Creating 3d CAD model is alone a demanding engineering task due to its extremely complex geometry, and the proper finite element analysis process is still in the center of the research. The increasingly widespread application of the metal foams, e.g. in vehicle and medical industry, requires this knowledge in the design phase. A closed-cell metal foam is studied using different analyzing methods where the aim is to collect information about the composition and geometry (structure) that is satisfactory for the later research. Using statistical methods microscopic, X-ray and surface analyzing studies on the specimens produced according to the concerning standard are evaluated. The main goal of this part of the project is to obtain structural information and to determine the homogeneity or the in-homogeneity property of the metal foam specimens taken from different locations.

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