The present study hopes to contribute to Middle Bronze Age studies in two specific areas: first, by publishing a new series of radiocarbon dates for a period from which there are few absolute dates, and second, by describing a less known area in the Vatya culture distribution based on the investigations at Kakucs.The Kakucs area was increasingly intensively settled during the course of the Bronze Age. In this context, the area along the left Danube bank down to the Kakucs area, lying in close proximity to the eponymous site at Újhartyán-Vatya, is very instructive. Following a scanty occupation marked by a few smaller sites at the onset of the Early Bronze Age, the number of sites and associated cemeteries grew dynamically from the late Nagyrév/early Vatya period onward. Despite the uncertainties in the relative chronology of the known Middle Bronze Age sites, the increase in the number of sites is in itself a reflection of a population growth and an increasing landscape exploitation. The left bank of the Danube became one of the period’s most intensively settled regions during the Middle Bronze Age 1–3.
The biological properties of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strain Oregon C24V were studied after intranasal and subcutaneous infection of pregnant sows. This virus strain is widely used in Hungary for immunising cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD). Based upon the results of the clinical, gross pathological, histopathological and virological examinations it can be established that the given strain caused asymptomatic infection and serological conversion in sows that were in the second third of gestation. The virus caused clinically apparent disease in some of the piglets born at term, which indicates that it had crossed the placenta. More than half (57%) of the live-born piglets died within 60 days of birth. The sows and their progeny did not shed the virus. BVDV infection has great differential diagnostic importance in pigs, as classical swine fever (CSF) virus strains of reduced virulence cause similar clinical symptoms and gross and histopathological changes.
The effect of 10-day zearalenone administration starting 10 days after ovulation was studied in 6 cycling trotter mares in the summer period. After an entire oestrous cycle (Cycle 1), mares were given 7 mg purified zearalenone per os daily (1 mg/ml in ethyl alcohol) beginning on Day 10 of Cycle 2. Toxin exposure was continued until the subsequent ovulation. Luteal function and follicular activity were monitored daily by rectal palpation, ultrasonography and blood sampling for progesterone. During toxin exposure, all animals were in good physical condition. The toxin had no effect on the length of the interovulatory intervals, luteal and follicular phases. It did not influence significantly the plasma progesterone profiles (logistic curve parameters A1 to A6), the follicular activity (growth rate, maximum size of the ovulatory follicles, maximum number and the time of first increase in the number of large follicles) and the uterine oedema. It is concluded that in cyclic mares the methods used in this study could not detect any adverse effect of zearalenone (administered at a low dose similar to natural exposure) on reproduction.
Systemic (intramuscular, IM) vs. local (intracisternal, IC) routes of spiramycin-based drying-off therapy were compared for efficacy on 65 Staphylococcus aureus infected udder quarters of 38 dairy cows. Single-dose (30,000 IU/kg) IM treatment (single IM group) resulted in a similarly low bacteriological recovery rate (14%) as seen in the untreated controls (18%). IM treatment (30,000 IU/kg) on 4 consecutive days (4 IM group) resulted in significantly higher quarter-based recovery rates than that in the single IM group. The bacteriological recovery rates obtained in the intracisternal and 4 IM groups were quite similar but remained below 50%. Based on these findings as well as on the high cost of the repeated intramuscular treatment regime there is no reason to give extra preference to the systemic application of spiramycin at drying off in the practice.
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the tendencies of development in the construction industry, one of the most important foundations of economic development, between 2000 and 2012. The key findings of the study may be summarized in the following:
– In the period between the 2000 and 2012, after the increasing tendency that could be observed in the first half of the first decade in the new millennium, a significant drop occurred both in terms of the value of production and the number of employees in the construction industry.
– From the three subsectors of the construction industry, it was the construction of buildings on which the economic crisis that started in 2008 had a negative impact.
– The territorial tendencies of the construction industry were influenced by large-scale infrastructural investments (motorway construction, railway network development).
An outbreak of the atypical form of myxomatosis struck a rabbit farm in Hungary. The animals had previously been vaccinated with a vaccine containing Shope rabbit fibroma virus strain. The disease appeared in winter when the presence of mosquitoes and fleas is not common. The virus was isolated from an eyelid specimen of a naturally infected rabbit. The surviving animals were observed for four weeks, blood samples were collected and, after euthanasia, organ specimens were also examined by morphological methods including pathology and electron microscopy. Serum samples were examined by virus neutralisation for antibodies. Genetic analysis of the isolated virus was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. The primers were designed on the basis of the major envelope gene (Env) of the Lausanne reference strain in the GenBank. The viral proteins were examined by SDS-PAGE. The isolated virus (ref. no.: BP04/2001) was able to infect the susceptible animals directly, by contact. The disease was characterised by respiratory symptoms of the upper tracheal tract, conjunctivitis and high mortality by the 11th-14th day. Aerogenic infection with strain BP04/2001 resulted in 100% morbidity among the susceptible animals. Sequencing of the amplified 400-bp-long DNA revealed 97% homology with the Env gene of the Lausanne strain, which proves that strain BP04/2001 is a variant of the Lausanne strain having been enzootic throughout Europe. The live vaccine strain used in Hungary against myxomatosis, which is also a Lausanne-derived strain, protected the animals. According to the protein analysis a protein of 200 kDa in size is not expressed in strain BP04/2001. This is the first report on atypical myxomatosis in Central Europe. The virus spreads by airborne transmission and may cause severe losses in the rabbit population.
The energy imbalance related predisposition to mastitis was studied in group-fed postpartum dairy cows (n = 333) kept in 4 large-scale units and producing milk of low somatic cell count (SCC). Blood samples were taken on Days 1-3 after calving for assaying some metabolites and hormones related to the negative energy balance (NEB). If mastitis was diagnosed later, aseptic milk samples were taken to identify the pathogens. Considering pathogen types [contagious pathogens: Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, Gram-positive (GP) environmental pathogens, and Gram-negative (GN) environmental pathogens + mastitis with no detectable pathogens (NDP)] separately, stepwise logistic regression was used to analyse the relation between the potential prognostic value of hormones and metabolites and mastitis outbreak. Only the elevated (= 1.00 mmol/l) serum ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels predisposed the cows to mastitis in the subsequent 4 weeks. This prognostic value of BHB was significant only in GN + NDP mastitis and in cases caused by GP environmental pathogens, but not in S. aureus mastitis (odds ratio: 5.333, 3.600 and 1.333, respectively).
Maternal plasma leptin is elevated in ewes during pregnancy. The authors studied whether there was any relation between maternal plasma leptin and insulin concentrations, the number of fetuses and the circulating and faecal levels of gestagens. At the end of the breeding season in January the ovarian activity of Prolific Merino ewes was induced/synchronised with gestagen + eCG treatment. Ewes were inseminated artificially (AI) by laparoscopy. Blood and faecal samples were collected before AI (day 0) and again 41, 81 and 101 days later. The plasma levels of leptin (pL), insulin and progesterone (pP4), and the faecal P4 metabolite (P4-met) content were determined. The day 0 level of pL was significantly higher in pregnant (n = 24) than in non-pregnant ewes (n = 32). By day 41 the pL of pregnant animals had doubled, it showed a further moderate increase on day 81, and decreased slightly thereafter. During pregnancy pP4 and faecal P4-met rose continuously and were positively correlated at all stages. The mean levels of pL and pP4 and the faecal content of P4-met were lower in ewes bearing single (n = 12) than in those with 2 (n = 6) or 3-5 fetuses (n = 6). Analysis of variance demonstrated significant differences according to the number of fetuses in the pL and pP4, but not in P4-met (p = 0.042, 0.044, and 0.051, respectively). Leptin showed positive correlation with insulin before the AI but not during pregnancy. On days 41 and 81 pL showed a slight positive correlation with P4 and P4-met, which decreased slightly by day 101. This study shows that although leptinaemia is affected by the number of fetuses and the level of P4, pregnancy stage is a more important regulator than these additional factors.