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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Gabriella Spengler, Annamária Molnár, G. Klausz, Yvette Mándi, M. Kawase, N. Motohashi, and J. Molnár

The inhibition of bacterial motility was studied by a trifluoro methyl ketone derivative on two Escherichia coli strains (wild strain having a proton pump system and the proton pump-deficient mutant strain) and two Helicobacter pylori strains (clarithromycin susceptible and clarithromycin resistant). Evidence is presented of the inhibitory action of 1-(2-benzoxazolyl)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-propanone (TF18) on the proton motive forces of the two bacterial strains by affecting the action of biological motor and proton efflux in the membranes. The swimming, the forward motion was more sensitive than the vibration or tumbling to the inhibition. We suppose that the inhibiton of bacterial motility is related to the virulence of bacteria: consequently the pathogenicity can be reduced in the presence of TF18.

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Hypertonic small-volume resuscitation transiently restores the cardiovascular function during various circulatory disturbances. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator of flow-induced peripheral and central hemodynamic changes, and therefore, we hypothesized that a decreased endogenous NO production could influence the consequences and the effectiveness of hypertonic fluid therapy. The main goal of this study was to outline and compare the circulatory effects small volume hypertonic saline-dextran (HSD, 7.5% NaCl-10% dextran; 4 ml/kg iv) infusion with (n=7) or without (n=7) artificially diminished NO production in normovolemic anesthetized dogs. HSD administration significantly increased cardiac index (CI), coronary flow (CF) and myocardial contractility, and elevated plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels. However, the late (2 h) postinfusion period was characterized by significantly decreased myocardial NO synthase (NOS) and enhanced myeloperoxidase activities. Pre-treatment with the non-selective NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine (NNA, 4 mg/kg) immediately increased cardiac contractility, and the HSD-induced CI and CF elevations and the positive inotropy were absent. Additionally, plasma ET-1 levels increased and NOx levels were significantly decreased. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that HSD infusion leads to preponderant vasoconstriction when endogenous NO synthesis is diminished, and this could explain the loss of effectiveness of HSD resuscitation in NO-deficient states.

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The aim of this study was to outline the consequences of a hypertonic saline-dextran-40 (HSD) infusion-induced peripheral flow stimulus on the ventricular function in closed-chest, pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. We hypothesized that HSD-induced elevation in endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) release can have a role in myocardial contractile responses; and that cardiac mast cells (MC) degranulation may be involved in this process. The consequences of disodium cromoglycate (a MC stabilizer) or ETR-p1/fl peptide (an endothelin-A receptor antagonist) treatment were evaluated. A 4 ml/kg iv HSD40 infusion significantly increased cardiac index and myocardial contractility, and resulted in a decreased peripheral resistance. The postinfusion period was characterized by significant plasma NO and ET-1 elevations, these hemodynamic and biochemical changes being accompanied by a decreased myocardial ET-1 content, NO synthase activity and enhanced myocardial MC degranulation. Disodium cromoglycate treatment inhibited the HSD40-induced elevations in myocardial contractility and MC degranulation, and similar hemodynamic changes were noted after treatment with ETR-p1/fl peptide, together with a normalized myocardial myocardial ET-1 content, NO synthesis and a significant reduction in MC degranulation. These results indicate that peripheral NO and ET-1 release modulates the cardiac contractility through myocardial ET-A receptor activation and MC degranulation.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: G. Nyírő, G. Inczédy-Farkas, V. Reményi, A. Gál, Zs Pál, and Mária Molnár

Clopidogrel is an inhibitor of platelet-aggregation used in the prevention of secondary stroke. The molecule is activated by the cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) enzyme. The frequent CYP2C19*2 point mutation causes loss of enzyme function, a decreased (heterozygous form) or blocked (homozygous form) formation of the active molecule. Thus, for a patient harboring a mutated allele, clopidogrel does not provide effective protection against stroke. Multiple drugs inhibit the CYP2C19 enzyme and their simultaneous use with clopidogrel is especially hazardous for patients with genetically decreased enzyme activity. Frequency of the CYP2C19*2 is variable in different populations, highest rates were detected in some Asian groups. In our study the CYP2C19 genotype was determined in one Hungarian sample of 354 stroke patients and 221 healthy controls. Frequency of the minor allele was found to be 12.87% (12.85% in stroke patients, 12.89% in healthy controls). The proportion of the homozygous CYP2C19*2 variant causing total loss of gene function was 1.74%, rate of the heterozygous allele causing reduced enzyme activity was 22.26% in the total population. Our results for the allele frequencies of the CYP2C19*2 gene are similar to those found in other Caucasian populations. In conclusion, the homozygous mutation, causing ineffectiveness of clopidogrel is relatively rare. However, the heterozygous form in which interaction of CYP2C19 inhibitors causes further decrease in the genetically impaired enzyme activity is present in every fifth drug-taking patient. Based on our findings, we would like to emphasize that it is important to adjust individually antiplatelet treatment in ischemic stroke patients and to take into consideration genetic factors as well as drugs taken for comorbid conditions.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: A. Molnár, P. Sarlós, G. Fáncsi, J. Rátky, Sz. Nagy, and A. Kovács

Semen of an infertile Dutch White (Saanenthal) goat buck was examined. Light and electron microscopic examinations showed aberrations of the sperm tails resembling the so-called Dag or Dag-like defects described in several cattle breeds. Ejaculated semen showed that virtually all of the cells had strongly coiled or broken tails, or fractured midpieces. Ultrastructural investigations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed uneven distribution of the mitochondria in the midpiece. Coiled tails were encapsulated by a common membrane, and dislocated axial fibres and different membranous structures were also present. The ultrastructural characteristics of the defective sperm tails, the missing parts of the axial fibre bundle and the misalignment of the mitochondria indicate that this first case reported in goat is similar to the Dag-like defect in cattle.

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The fungal revolution taking place in otorhinology inspired us to study the frequency of occurrence of fungi in the nasal mucus of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients (with or without polyposis) in order to evaluate the incidence of eosinophilic fungal sinusitis in CRS patients. Ninety-six samples were examined from patients with CRS. In 74 cases mucus was collected non-invasively, and in 22 cases during operation. The Gram-stained direct smears of all samples were also evaluated. Bacteria and fungi colonizing in the mucus were detected by culturing method. The control group consisted of 50 healthy volunteers. Typical aerobic pathogenic bacteria could be isolated from 34 patients. Fifty-seven aerobic bacteria were isolated, i.e. 1.6 bacteria/positive patient with a maximum of 3 different bacteria/sample. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. Yeasts and moulds could be detected from 79 patients (83%): Candida albicans, Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp, and Penicillium spp. were isolated most frequently. Altogether 237 yeasts and moulds were isolated, i.e. 3.0 different fungi/positive patient, with a maximum of 5 different fungi/sample. In the control group aerobic pathogens were not isolated, only apathogenic species. Fungi were isolated from 22 healthy patients (44%). These data indicate that fungi are frequently involved in the aetiology of CRS. IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to fungal allergens could not be proven in our patients.

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Understanding the role of nutrition in the development of children’s physical, mental, and motor abilities.


Examination of visiting nurse reports on feeding habits and perceived developmental delays in infants at 1 year of age between 2010 and 2015.


Between 0 and 6 months of age the lowest number of new cases (4.4/100,000) identified by health screenings can be anticipated among the infants feeding exclusively with breastmilk. We find a similarly low number of identifiable new cases among infants nourished with breastmilk where it is mixed with other nutrients (4.7 new cases) while the most cases of delayed motor development can be anticipated among infants nourished with infant formulae (48.4 new cases).


The role of nutrition in infants’ motor development is vital, especially breastfeeding. Regular health status checks of infants are inevitably required for the adoption of higher-level health-policy decisions which may induce projects, programmes, and strategies aimed at the improvement of health. Thorough documentation and continuous collection of the pertinent data is likewise requisite.

Open access
Physiology International
Authors: G. Molnár, V. A. Gyarmathy, J. Takács, S. Sándor, B. Kiss, J. Fazakas, and P. L. Kanizsai



Conditions that have similar initial presentations as sepsis may make early recognition of sepsis in an emergency room (ER) difficult. We investigated whether selected physiologic and metabolic parameters can be reliably used in the emergency department to differentiate sepsis from other disease states that mimic it, such as dehydration and stroke.


Loess regression on retrospective follow-up chart data of patients with sepsis-like symptoms (N = 664) aged 18+ in a large ER in Hungary was used to visualize/identify cutoff points for sepsis risk. A multivariate logistic regression model based on standard triage data was constructed with its corresponding receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and compared with another model constructed based on current sepsis guidelines.


Age, bicarbonate, HR, lactate, pH, and body temperature had U, V, W, or reverse U-shaped associations with identifiable inflexion points, but the cutoff values we identified were slightly different from guideline cutoff values. In contrast to the guidelines, no inflexion points could be observed for the association of sepsis with SBP, DPB, MAP, and RR and therefore were treated as continuous variables. Compared to the guidelines-based model, the triage data-driven final model contained additional variables (age, pH, bicarbonate) and did not include lactate. The data-driven model identified about 85% of sepsis cases correctly, while the guidelines-based model identified only about 70% of sepsis cases correctly.


Our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence for the necessity of finding improved tools to identify sepsis at early time points, such as in the ER.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Baukje G. Andela, Frank J. C. M. Van Eerdenburg, Ali Choukeir, Dávid Buják, Zoltán Szelényi, Szabolcs Boldizsár, Fruzsina Luca Kézér, László Molnár, Levente Kovács, and Ottó Szenci

Activities of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and concentrations of serum metabolites [beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA)] of primiparous (n = 83) and multiparous (n = 213) Holstein cows were studied as possible predictors of retained fetal membranes (RFM), grade 2 clinical metritis (CM) and clinical endometritis (CEM). A logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for the prevalence of CM diagnosed between 0–5, 6–10 and 11–20 days in milk (DIM) and for the prevalence of CEM diagnosed between 22–28 and 42–49 DIM. The activities of the examined serum enzymes did not show significant associations either with CM or with CEM. For NEFA sampled on days 0 and 5, an OR of 2.38 for CM 0–20 DIM and an OR of 2.58 for CM 11–20 DIM was found. For BHB sampled on days 0 and 5, an OR of 8.20 for CEM 22–28 and 42–49 DIM and an OR of 1.98 for CM 6–10 DIM were found. The prevalence of RFM was higher in ≥ 4 parity cows compared to primiparous cows (46.3% vs. 26.5%). BHB and NEFA levels measured between 0 and 5 DIM could have a predictive ability for postpartum uterine disorders such as RFM, CM and CEM.

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