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  • Author or Editor: G. Rodríguez x
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Abstract  

The specific and non-specific interactions of twelve activated carbon cloth samples prepared from commercial cotton fabric, and that present different activation degrees are studied through the determination of immersion enthalpies in CCl4 and H2O, and in aqueous solutions of NaOH and HCl. The immersion enthalpies found for the solvents CCl4 and H2O are in a range of 5.49–45.84 and 1.77–7.76 J g−1, respectively. The enthalpic values for the materials in aqueous solutions of NaOH and HCl, allow characterizing the chemical surface of these materials, which are in a range of 6.63 and 21.49 J g−1, finding through them important relations in company with other characterizing techniques used in the study of these materials.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a well-known analytical method for nondestructive, sensitive and accurate determination of elemental composition of geological samples. In the present work twenty-two elements were determined by INAA in nine rhyolitic geological samples from a wolframium ore body Lela, located in the territory of Isla de la Juventud, Cuba. The obtained results are important for the preliminary geochemical evaluation of the studied rocks.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and gamma spectrometric analysis (GSA) were used for the determination of twenty-one elements in pegmatites of Loma Venturilla area, in Central Cuba. The application of both methods allowed the determination of K, Co, Cr, Sc, Rb, Cs, Ba, Ta, Hf, Th, U, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Yb and Lu. The results were obtained with good precision and accuracy. The knowledge of such concentrations is particularly useful for geochemical investigations. The obtained concentration values can be used in studies on the petrogenesis of those rocks. The results facilitate the evaluation and estimation of the main process involved in the generation and differentiation of the melts from which the pegmatites were formed.

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Abstract  

The state of trace concentrations of95Zr–95Nb and134Cs was studied at an initial pH>13 in an uranyl triperoxidate medium using the electromigration method. OH ions governing the potential are adsorbed on the colloidal Nb(V)-hydroxide which leads to an increase in its negative electric charge; while95Zr did not move during the procedure. However, the electrophoretic mobility of the134Cs could be explained in terms of their agglomerations attributed to the interaction of Cs+ ions with water molecules to give larger aggregations.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
L. Desdín García
,
G. Capote Rodríguez
,
A. Leyva Fabelo
, and
L. Calderín Hidalgo

Abstract  

This paper shows the influence of hardness on the beta backscattering coefficient from heat treated and plastic deformed carbon steel specimens. The observed effect cannot be explained as a change in the chemical composition of the sample (or effective atomic number). In order to explain the observed dependencies, it is necessary to take into account the structural defect and morphological changes of the different phases.

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Abstract  

Se in Ni and Co concentration in concentrates obtained from the nickel industry has to be determined for quality control requirements in their commercialization. Analysis of Se at minor and trace levels is relatively complicated and destructive procedures are frequently required. In this work the determination of Se by epithemal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) in 17 samples from Cuban nickel industry was investigated. Application of ENAA allowed nondestructive determination of Se concentration down to ppm level in spite of the presence of high Co, Fe, Ni and Cr contents in the samples. For attenuation of the thermal neutron flux a Cd filter was utilized.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
G. Rodríguez
,
A. Rivero
,
J. Bermúdez
,
S. Guevara
,
J. Insfrán
, and
G. Zayas

Abstract  

In this work the determination of elemental composition of MIBI, MAG-3 and sodium phytate by INAA was investigated. Analytical information about the concentration and/or detection limits of some toxic elements (Hg, Cd, As, Se, Sb) and other trace element of interest (Fe, Cr, Co, Zn, Br) was obtained.

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Abstract  

The electrophoretic mobility of some radionuclides has been measured to understand its attractive or repulsive tendencies towards other charged species in the medium. In this study, the chemical state of trace concentrations of88Y,103Ru,134Cs, and141Ce in the presence of UO 2 2+ , as a dominant component, in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions (pH>13) was characterized.88Y and141Ce settled almost completely as colloidal species; whereas103Ru,134Cs, and uranium remained as ions. These results closely correlate a procedure for defining both the composition of the water in contact with the fuel and the practical applicability of modified sorbents.

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Abstract  

An effective method to minimize the presence of141Ce in the final hexahydrated uranyl nitrate recovery product has been obtained. This condition is considered as one prepurification stage in the recovery process of residual nonfissioned uranium in the production of99Mo of fission.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
C. Auguet
,
J. Lerchner
,
P. Marinelli
,
F. Martorell
,
M. Rodriguez de Rivera
,
V. Torra
, and
G. Wolf

Abstract  

The experimental analysis of conventional conduction calorimeters shows excellent reproducibility and relevant systematic errors in comparison with thermodynamic values established via adiabatic calorimeters. Two examples: a DSC and a liquid flow device are schematically analyzed. When an increased accuracy will be obtained the positional effects on the experimental set-up and on the measurement process need to be modelled. From experimental measurements realized on the Xensor liquid nano-calorimeter representative models can be built. To evaluate the reliability of measurement routines, established from experimental basis, several different dissipation structures inside the working space can be simulated. Two experimental configurations related to drop to drop reaction and to continuous mixing are modelled via RC approach. The RC formalism is extended to evaluate the carried energy effect produced by the continuous inflow/outflow of reactants in the mixing enthalpy chamber.

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