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The aim of this study is to present a situation assessment within the framework of a comprehensive study of the social services for people with mental illness in Hungary. After setting the historical background, we describe in detail the current services, their anomalies, and the ongoing implementation of a strategy to deinstitutionalize them.

Materials and methods

We reviewed the related academic literature and systematically collected and elaborated upon legal documents, decisions, and data from national databases.


We established that a paradigm shift is taking place in the social care of people with mental disorders in Hungary. The lack of human resources, the paternalistic, institution-centered attitude, the mass supply of social services in dilapidated buildings, and the stigmatization of patients are among the greatest problems. Cooperation between the health and social sectors is inadequate and, in the interests of patients, needs to be improved.


Hungary needs a complex, integrated, health-and-social-care supply system for people living with mental illness, one that takes into account both personal needs and assistance to recovery. In the continuation of the deinstitutionalization process, emphasis should be placed on social sensitization.

Open access


Sepsis is a challenge for health professionals. The increasing number of cases emphasizes the importance of early recognition resulting in better survival.

Materials and methods

Questionnaires were spread focusing on the prehospital recognition, treatment, and care pathway of septic patients. After presenting an initial scenario, other sepsis-like diseases were given as diagnosis of choice and the answers were registered. After redefining the situation, the same potential diagnoses were given and the difference in correct answers was detected.


The number of responders was 120. Among them, 33% of responders chose hypovolaemia, 10% allergic reaction, 2.5% endocrine disease, 30.8% systemic inflammatory response syndrome/sepsis, 0.83% internal bleeding, 0.83% drug effect, 2.5% pulmonary embolism, and 19.17% metabolic disorder as primary diagnosis with a significantly higher number of trained paramedics highlighting the correct answer. After redefining the scenario, 63% changed the diagnosis, while 37% did not change (p < .001). Further management was correctly chosen by the majority of responders.


The small number of correct answers from non-paramedics highlights the need for more education in identifying the pitfalls of early recognition and therapy of those who attend patients first.


Trained paramedics recognize the sepsis better than other representatives, necessitating the introduction of new guidelines.

Open access