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Background and objectives
Craving is one of the main criteria for the diagnosis of substance use disorder according to the DSM-5; however, it is not included in the main criteria for gambling disorder (GD). In the present systematic review, we aimed to evaluate the available body of knowledge regarding gambling craving to help step forward to a consensus regarding this topic.
PsycINFO/PsycARTICLES and PubMed/Medline were used.
Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions
(1) individuals of both genders who had a clinical diagnosis of GD in which the presence of gambling craving were studied by means of tasks or self-report tools; (2) we included three types of studies: (a) validation articles of craving psychometric tools in which GD was assessed; (b) articles in which craving–GD association was explored; and (c) treatment articles for GD in which craving was assessed.
n = 63 studies were finally included in the systematic review. Some studies described an association between craving- and gambling-related factors, and craving was also described as a predictor of GD severity, gambling episodes, chasing persistence and income-generating offenses. Gambling craving also seems to be associated with emotional states and negative urgency. Finally, some studies implemented specific interventions for GD and assessed its impact on reducing gambling craving.
There is a growing body of knowledge on the relevant role of craving in gambling behavior and GD. Further studies are needed to reach a consensus on the diagnostic criterion for GD.
Background and aims
Difficulties in Emotion Regulation (ER) are related to the etiology and maintenance of several psychological disorders, including Eating Disorders (ED) and Gambling Disorder (GD). This study explored the existence of latent empirical groups between both disorders, based on ER difficulties and considering a set of indicators of personality traits, the severity of the disorder, and psychopathological distress.
The sample included 1,288 female and male participants, diagnosed with ED (n = 906) and GD (n = 382). Two-step clustering was used for the empirical classification, while analysis of variance and chi-square tests were used for the comparison between the latent groups.
Three empirical groups were identified, from the most disturbed ER profile (Subgroup 1) to the most functional (Subgroup 3). The ER state showed a linear relationship with the severity of each disorder and the psychopathological state. Different personality traits were found to be related to the level of emotion dysregulation.
Discussion and conclusion
In this study, three distinct empirical groups based on ER were identified across ED and GD, suggesting that ER is a transdiagnostic construct. These findings may lead to the development of common treatment strategies and more tailored approaches.