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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
Milica Jovanović
,
Branko Milošević
,
Tanja Tošić
,
Goran Stevanović
,
Vesna Mioljević
,
Nikola Inđić
,
Branko Velebit
, and
Marcus Zervos

In this study the distribution of species and antimicrobial resistance among vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) recovered from clinical specimens obtained from five hospitals in Belgrade was analyzed. Strains were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to investigate the presence of vanA and vanB genes and pathogenicity factor genes. Identification of 194 VRE isolates revealed 154 Enterococcus faecium, 21 Enterococcus faecalis, 10 Enterococcus raffinosus and 9 Enterococcus gallinarum. This study revealed existence of 8 major clones of VRE. PCR determined vanA gene to be present in all of the VRE studied. Esp and hyl genes were present in 29.22% and 27.92% of E. faecium, respectively, and in 76.19% and 0 of E. faecalis, respectively. Esp and hyl genes were not found more frequently in members of predominant clones of E. faecium than in single isolates; nor was their presence connected to invasiveness.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
Milica Jovanović
,
Branko Milošević
,
Olga Dulović
,
Mijomir Pelemiš
,
Goran Stevanović
,
Tanja Tošić
,
Branka Stošović
, and
M.J. Zervos

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the molecular relatedness of clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) collected from patients of the Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade. Among 40 isolates available for the investigation, 36 were identified as Enterococcus faecium, whereas 2 were Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus raffinosus, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing revealed 21 strain types, comprising 7 clusters which contained at least two isolates and 14 unique PFGE patterns. Although we searched for pathogenicity factor genes (gelE, cylB, asa1, efaAfs, esp, cpd, cob) in representatives of all macro-restriction patterns, they have been confirmed in only one clone of E. faecalis. Genes esp and hyl, commonly found in E. faecium, were yilded in 10 macro-restriction patterns of this species, and their presence could not be ascribed to clonally related strains (p = 0.05). All VRE isolates were multiresistant and positive for vanA gene. Twenty strains of VRE and 6 clusters obtained from Intensive care unit (ICU) are proof of intensive transmission of these microorganisms at this department. The results of this study suggest wide genotypic variability among the clinical VRE isolates, but also intrahospital dissemination of some of them.

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