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Pesticide producers cannot ignore their possible obligations under the REACH regulation controlling registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals, as only the active ingredients (and not the other composites) are exempted from REACH requirements, and more specifically only those quantities of these substances, which are used for plant protection purposes. Registration requirements show similarities with the pesticide authorization process, moreover, the required ecotoxicological tests for pesticide active substances are of the same extent as in the case of industrial substances manufactured/imported in quantities of at least 100 tons per year. A further common characteristic is the higher legal level and more centralized feature of the regulations, leading to the establishment of different authorization zones within the European Union. Although this is considered a favorable trend in case of chemical substances from the aspect of the free movement of goods, possible benefits of zonification regarding pesticides are rather questionable due to the significant differences in ecological characteristics among different areas of the European Union. Studies on genotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects are challenging the fundamentals of toxicology. Conflicting results burden the treatment of endocrine disrupters; laying down the foundations of a testing framework, and legal regulation is still ongoing. Their controversial situation is demonstrated by a few examples.

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Treatment with various concentrations (0, 5, 15 and 20%) of PEG was used to simulate water stress, followed by inoculation with Drechslera tritici-repentis (DTR) at two different points of time (6 and 72 h after the PEG treatment) in two DTR resistant (M-3 and Mv Magvas) and two sensitive (Bezostaya 1 and Glenlea) wheat varieties. The reduction in biomass production due to the PEG treatments was more pronounced in the shoots than in the roots. While in the case of Bezostaya 1 5% PEG reduced the level of infection, 20% PEG treatment lowered the tolerance level of M-3. DTR infection may be more efficient in inducing antioxidative defence systems than water stress. However, there was no direct correlation between the activity of the individual antioxidant enzymes and the drought or DTR tolerance of wheat plants.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
T. Tóth
,
T. Németh
,
A. Bidló
,
F. Dér
,
M. Fekete
,
T. Fábián
,
Z. Gaál
,
B. Heil
,
T. Hermann
,
E. Horváth
,
G. Kovács
,
A. Makó
,
F. Máté
,
K. Mészáros
,
Z. Patocskai
,
F. Speiser
,
I. Szűcs
,
G. Tóth
,
Gy. Várallyay
,
J. Vass
, and
Sz. Vinogradov
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