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  • Author or Editor: H. Kato x
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Abstract  

The thermal behavior associated with the melting of ice was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the gel and L-subgel phases of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-water system of varying water contents up to a full hydration. By calorimetric analysis previously developed by us, the numbers of differently bound water molecules were estimated, and used to construct water distribution diagrams (i.e., a plot of the cumulative numbers of these water molecules vs. water content) for the two phases. A comparison of the diagrams revealed the critical role of interlamellar water which changes from freezable to non-freezable one in a conversion of the gel to the L-subgel phase by the thermal annealing.

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Abstract  

To study the mechanism of accumulation of radiocesium by the mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kummer Y-1), uptake of137 Cs and Cs in the presence of the alkali elements was investigated. The concentration ratio (concentration in the mycelia or the fruit body (dry)/concentration in the medium (wet); CR) of137Cs was almost identical with that of Cs. The CR of137Cs decreased with increasing of Cs, K or Rb concentration in the media. Similarly, the CR of K decreased with increasing the Cs concentration in the media. The result of137Cs gel filtration chromatography of the mycelia cultivated in the media containing Cs showed that137Cs was not bound to molecules with more than 10000 molecular weight.

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Abstract  

Chlorine, bromine and iodine (hereafter, halogens) were detemined for rock samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The powdered samples and reference standards prepared from chemical reagents were simultaneously irradiated for 10 to 30 minutes with or without a cadmium filter in a TRIGA-II reactor at the Institute for Atomic Energy, Rikkyo University. The samples were subjected to radiochemical procedures of halogens immediately after the irradiation. Iodine was firstly precipitated as PdI2, and chlorine and bromine were successively precipitated as Ag-halides at the same time. In this study, geological standard rocks, sedimentary rocks and meteorites were analyzed for trace halogens. In some Antarctic meteorites, iodine contents were observed to be anomalously high. Chlorine contents also are somewhat high. The overabundance of iodine and chlorine must be caused by terrestrial contamination on the Antarctica.

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Abstract  

We have investigated effects of shear flow on the structure of lamellar phase in hepta(oxyethylene glycol)—n—hexadecylether—water system using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) under shear flow at the shear rates (

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) from 10–3 s–1 to 50 s–1. In the range
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=10–2 ~1 s–1, significant changes have been observed in both intensity and position of the reflection peak. Small-angle X-ray scattering without shear has been also measured at various concentrations and temperatures. It has been suggested from these results that the shear flow causes contraction of lamellar domains and formation of a new domain composed of disrupted bilayers which grows rapidly with increasing shear rate and reconstructs original microstructures.

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Abstract  

We have focused on the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-borate ester as a new type plasticizer for solid polymer electrolyte for lithium ion secondary battery. Adding the PEG-borate ester into the electrolyte shows the increase in the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte. By measuring the glass-transition temperature of the polymer electrolytes with DSC, it is found that the increase in ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte is due to the increase in ionic mobility. By investigating the temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolytes using William-Landel-Ferry type equation, we considered that the PEG-borate ester does not have any influence for dissociation of Li-salt.

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