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  • Author or Editor: I. Király x
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The present study investigated how sighted and blind sensory assessors evaluated the quality of various apple varieties: Regal Prince (Gala Must), Jonagold Schneica (Jonica), Watson Jonathan, Golden Reinders and Generos. A total of 80 sighted and 12 blind people participated in the study, in three groups (sighted people without blindfolds, sighted people with blindfolds, blind people). The preference of sensory attributes (size, shape, colour, texture, taste and odour) was evaluated on a six-category scale. The data were analysed using single-factor (ANOVA, LSD95%, 99%) and multi-factor (Cluster analysis, ANOVA, LSD95%, 99%) evaluation. The results showed that blind and sighted assessors made similar judgements on external attributes perceptible by touch (size, shape), but differed in their evaluation of certain quality factors (flavour, taste), resulting in opponent patterns of preference on some apple varieties (Generos, Jonagold Schneica). A further conclusion of the experiment is that there was less deviation between the judgements of sighted assessors when they saw the apples than when they were blindfolded. The background of this phenomenon might be explained by the uncertainty and disturbed perception, which lead to inconsistent judgements.

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Erwinia amylovora (Burrill, Winslow et al.) is one of the most important pathogens of pear and apple and subject to strict quarantine regulations worldwide. Fire blight disease causes serious damages in pear orchards in Hungary. The aim of our experiment was to test the susceptibility of pear cultivars to Hungarian E. amylovora isolates under laboratory conditions. For inoculation test isolates were chosen from different host plants, areas and years. Seven traditional pear cultivars were chosen for testing. Fruit infection was rated according to the diameter of spots produced by the pathogen around the inoculation puncture. Cultivars and isolates were assigned to five susceptibility groups (symptomless, low susceptibility, moderate susceptibility, susceptible and very susceptible). The Hungarian Erwinia amylovora isolates showed different results. We found different susceptibility of traditional pear cultivars. The cultivars Alexander Lucas and Stössel tábornok represented the less susceptible category. Eldorado, Serres Olivér, Diel vajkörte were moderately susceptible. Thus, the most susceptible cultivars were Téli esperes and Drouard elnök. In conclusion, these results can be used for the classification of Erwinia amylovora isolates and in future breeding programmes for resistance.

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