Information and communications technology (ICT) inclusion has long been at the forefront of professional language pedagogy discourse. It has been argued that ICT implementation is globally advocated but depends on local variables. ICT literacy nowadays does not only include owning and operating devices, but also the ability to create content, solve problems and minding digital safety. The aims of this study were to validate a questionnaire mapping the ICT literacy of one particular group of adult learners: Hungarian English majors (N = 45) and to offer some preliminary results. After two rounds of reliability analysis, all nine constructs of the questionnaire proved to be reliable, each above a minimum Cronbach's alpha value of 0.60. Based on the questionnaire results, it can be said that Hungarian English majors have good digital competences, ICT devices are generally available for them, but their ICT acceptance is lower than hypothesised, and devices emerge as learning tools for students rather than substitutes for face-to-face interaction. Since the questionnaire was piloted on a small sample size (N = 45), results are only preliminary; therefore, this article outlines plans for future administration of the questionnaire.
Covid-19-triggered emergency remote teaching shed light on the discrepancies of the long-desired digital transformation of education. To learn more about Hungarian K12 (primary and secondary) teachers' techno-pedagogical skills, this study aimed to measure how they rate the components of the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework. The observed mean values gave grounds for clustering Hungarian K12 teachers based on their existing techno-pedagogical skills as well as proposing possible directions for development. It was found that among teachers who participated in the study (N = 216), 20% belong to the group of Beginners, 40% are Independent, and 40% are Advanced users of techno-pedagogical tools and methods. The groups are rather homogenous as gender, age, qualification and teaching experience are not predictors of techno-pedagogical knowledge. Beginners need help on the very operational levels of technology, Independent users transform traditional teaching methods in the online space, while Advanced users plan face-to-face and online classes differently but also include techno-pedagogy in their everyday classroom teaching practices. It was further observed that teachers in all groups are generally motivated in preparing for their online lessons, but the perceived motivation of their learners is much lower, and teachers do not generally consider online teaching effective.