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This article is the first of a series, and the precursor of a monograph on Ibn al-Muqaffa c ’s work. I give here a short description of the period of his times, those times of ferment in which Arabo-Islamic civilisation was first formed, and then continue with a more detailed analysis of what is probably the most controversial work attributed to him. I set out to prove that this “Manichean Apology” — which is in fact a “Rationalist Critique of Islam” — is very probably authentic, and gives an insight into the ontological foundations of Ibn al-Muqaffa c ’s ethical and political system. The article concludes with a summary of his philosophy as it can be reconstructed from his works.

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G. Richter, F. Gabrieli, I. c Abbās and M. Zakeri conducted fundamental research on Al-Adab al-ṣaġīr which is attributed to Ibn al-Muqaffa c . They concluded that this work is spurious. This view is generally accepted by most of the scholars. The primary objective of the first section of this article is to add some comments and information to their research, as well as to argue that Al-Adab al-ṣaġīr is very likely an authentic work of Ibn al-Muqaffa c . It is plausible that he compiled Pahlavi texts which he translated, and prefaced this compilation with an introduction. In the second section of this article I will discuss the question of the titles of some of Ibn al-Muqaffac c ’s compositions, such as the Kitāb al-ādāb al-kabīr, Al-Adab al-ṣaġīr, Al-Yatīma , and the Polemic against Islam . This article is the second of a series on Ibn al-Muqaffa c ’s oeuvre . The first article of this series La Lumière et les Ténèbres dans l’œuvre d’Ibn al-Muqaffa c (Light and Darkness in Ibn al-Muqaffa c ) was published in a previous volume of the AOH (61/3). The next article of this series, “Reason, Religion and Power in Ibn al-Muqaffa c ”, will be published in one of the next issues.

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The goal of my research is to put together from scattered mosaics an intellectual portrait of Ibn al-Muqaffa c , a complex and enigmatic thinker, and a key figure in the transmission of the late antique heritage to the Arabo-Islamic culture. This article is the third in a series. The first, “ La Lumière et les Ténèbres dans l’œuvre d’Ibn al-Muqaffa c ” (Light and Darkness in Ibn al-Muqaffa c ) was published in AOH Vol. 61 (3). In that article, I set out the rationalist and anti-Islamic ideas presented in works attributed to Ibn al-Muqaffa c . The second article, “On the authenticity of al-Adab al-ṣaġīr attributed to Ibn al-Muqaffa c and the titles of the Kitāb al-ādāb al-kabīr, al-Adab al-ṣaġīr, tal-Yatīma and the Polemic against Islam ” was published in AOH Vol. 62 (2). This third article complements the picture of the rationalist and anti-Islamic Ibn al-Muqaffa c that I have presented in the first article and shows another side of his attitude towards religion. According to the texts quoted here, the rationality of people is not enough to secure the peace of the individual soul, much less the peace of the state. The welfare of society requires a well functioning state whose cohesion is best ensured by religion.The introduction is a short outline of the correlation between Ibn al-Muqaffa c ’s social status and his attitude towards power, reason and religion. In the first section, I will quote and analyse some views attributed to him that reveal an unusual but coherent approach towards religion. The second section will present his ideas and reasoning that links reason, religion and power. The conclusion of this article will not end this series on Ibn al-Muqaffa c , but will be followed by the next article entitled: “A Self-portrait of a Wise Jackal; Ibn al-Muqaffa c ’s Heroes: the Sage and the Sovereign.”

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Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Authors: Anikó Báti, Tamás Régi, István Sántha, Katalin Tóth, Zoltán Nagy, Gábor Vargyas, and Gábor Vargyas
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Studia Slavica
Authors: János L. Nagy, Mihály Káprály, Mária Tétényi, István Fried, and Zsuzsanna Kalafatics

Nyelv, stílus, irodalom. Köszönto könyv Péter Mihály 70. születésnapjára. Budapest 1998, 646 p. (????, ?. ?.); - ?????? ?., ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?. ????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????.(Studia Ukrainica et Rusinica Nyíregyháziensia 12). ?????????? 2002, 238 p. ( ???????, ?.); - ?. ?. ??????? ? ?. ?. ???????, ????????? ? ?. ?. ?????????. The Tolstoys' Correspo ndence with N. N. Strakhov. (?? ??????? ???????????????? ????? ?. ?. ????????). A. A. Donskov (Ed.). Compiled by L. D. Gromova & T. G. Nikiforova. (Tolstoy Series 3). Slavic Research Group at the University of Ottawa and State L. N. Tolstoy Museum, Moscow, 2000, 308 p. (??????, ?.); - Marija Mitrovic, Geschichte der slowenischen Literatur. Von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. Klagenfurt-Ljubljana-Wien 2001. 617 p. (Fried, I.); - ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? I. ?????? 2001, 213 p. (?????????, ?.)

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The authors intend to provide an overview of the diaries, travelogues, and correspondence of Austro-Hungarians who traveled to the Asian peripheries of Russia during the Dual Monarchy. We aim to contribute to ongoing discussions on colonial discourses of otherness, as well as to the historical development of ethnographic scholarship in Europe. Travel writing, orientalism, and colonial encounters with Asian otherness are closely intermingling phenomena in the modern era. We argue that the rich corpus of visual and verbal representations of North-, Central-, and Inner-Asian peoples recorded by the subjects of the Dual Monarchy provides instructive examples of colonial encounters with non-colonizers in 19th century Asia. Furthermore, we believe that these examples will bring forth a more detailed picture of how the ideas born in the centers of German enlightenment (like Völkerkunde) impregnated the intellectual life of more peripheral regions in Europe. As ethnographic scholarship developed within national research traditions rather than in the frame of a monolithic, European intellectual project, our question is whether or not the Dual Monarchy provided a meaningful frame to bridge national research traditions.

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