A comparison of the results obtained using the classical methods with those of the API 20 Strep system was carried out in identifying 24 enterococci strains isolated from San Simón cow's milk cheese, a traditional Spanish variety. The results of both identification systems coincided exactly in 9 strains (37.5% of the strains studied). In one strain the results obtained using the classical methods did not coincide with those using the API 20 Strep method. 3 strains (12.5%) could not be identified using the API 20 Strep system. However, 11 strains (45%), that remained doubtful between both species E. faecalis and E. faecium on the basis of the classical methods, were identified using the API 20 Strep system. The API 20 Strep system does not include some biochemical tests of importance in identifying of foodborne enterococci and could not identify the atypical strains of Enterococcus. Moreover, this system is adapted to the identification of enterococci of clinical origin and their database does not include some species common in foods. However, it could have an application in combination with the classical methods in order to carry out a reasonably rapid and reliable identification of enterococci related to cheese.
There are two main theories explaining offspring sex biases in polygynous mammals. Trivers and Willard (1973) argue that mothers with greater reproductive resources should invest in the sex with the greater variance in reproductive success, usually sons. In contrast, because daughters in many polygynous mammals stay with their mother and compete with her for food, Local Resource Competition theory (e.g. Clark, 1978; Silk, 1983) predicts that the mothers with the greatest reproductive resources should invest in daughters. We investigated the strategy of sex allocation of a captive, outdoor population of 139 mouflon mothers, Ovis musimon, kept in a game state. A complex picture emerged in which, despite weight and body condition being correlated with age in female mouflons, mothers lambed more daughters with increasing age but also, within a given age, gave birth to more sons with increasing weight. Results may be useful in game management aimed at increasing the recruitment or quality o f males in managed populations.
The analysis of polymorphic markers within or closely linked to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene is useful as a molecular tool for carrier detection of known and unknown mutations. To establish the association between mutations in the CFTR gene in western Mexican cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, the distribution of XV2c/KM19 haplotypes was analyzed by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion in 384 chromosomes from 74 CF patients, their unaffected parents, and normal subjects.The haplotype analysis revealed that haplotype B was present in 71.9% of CF chromosomes compared to 0% of non-CF chromosomes. The F508del and G542X mutations were strongly associated with haplotype B (96.7% and 100% of chromosomes, respectively). The haplotype distribution of the CF chromosomes carrying other CFTR mutations had a more heterogeneous background.Our results show that haplotype B is associated with CFTR mutations. Therefore, haplotype analysis is a suitable alternate strategy for screening CF patients with a heterogeneous clinical picture from populations with a high molecular heterogeneity where carrier detection programs are not available. In addition, it may be a helpful diagnostic tool for genetic counseling and carrier detection in the relatives of CF patients and in couples who are planning to have children.
In order to ascertain whether differing structural mechanisms could underlie blood flow restricted training (BFRT) and high intensity training (HIT), this study had two aims: (i) to gain an insight into the acute variations of muscle architecture following a single bout of two different volumes of BFRT, and (ii) to compare these variations with those observed after HIT. Thirty-five young men volunteered for the study and were randomly divided into three groups: BFRT low volume (BFRT LV), BFRT high volume (BFRT HV) and traditional high intensity resistance training (HIT). All subjects performed a bilateral leg extension exercise session with a load of 20% of one repetition maximum (1RM) in the BFRT groups, whereas the load of the HIT group was equivalent to an 85% of their 1RM. Before and immediately after the exercise bout, ultrasound images were taken from the rectus femoris (RF) and the vastus lateralis (VL). All groups increased their RF (p < 0.001) and VL (p < 0.001) muscle thickness, while the increases in pennation angle were larger in HIT as compared to BFRT LV (p = 0.013) and BFRT HV (p = 0.037). These results support the hypothesis that acute muscle cell swelling may be involved in the processes underlying BFRT induced muscle hypertrophy. Furthermore, our data indicate differing structural responses to exercise between BFRT and HIT.
The goal of this study was to determine whether traditional ergoespirometric incremental exercise testing carried out to the point of exhaustion could be useful in distinguishing the physiological profiles of elite runners that compete in races that lasted about 8 minutes versus those that lasted about 2 hours. Ten male marathon runners (performance time: 2:12:04, coefficient of variation (CV) = 2.33%) and 8 male 3000 m steeplechase runners (performance time: 8:37.83, CV = 2.12%) performed an incremental test on the treadmill (starting speed 10 km·h−1; increments, 2 km·h−1; increment duration, 3 min to exhaustion). Heart rate (HR), VO2, and lactate concentrations were measured at the end of each exercise level. At maximal effort, there were no differences between the groups regarding VO2max and maximal HR; however, the workload time, vVO2max and peak treadmill velocity were significantly higher in the 3000 m steeplechase group (p<0.05). At submaximal effort, there were no significant differences between groups for VO2 (ml·kg−1·min−1), HR, or lactate. Our results show that this type of testing was not sufficient for discriminating the physiological profiles of elite runners who competed in middle-distance versus long-distance events (e.g. in the marathon and the 3000 m steeplechase).
Workaholism is a form of behavioral addiction that can lead to reduced life and job satisfaction, anxiety, depression, burnout, work–family conflict, and impaired productivity. Given the number of people affected, there is a need for more targeted workaholism treatments. Findings from previous case studies successfully utilizing second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs) for treating behavioral addiction suggest that SG-MBIs may be suitable for treating workaholism. This study conducted a controlled trial to investigate the effects of an SG-MBI known as meditation awareness training (MAT) on workaholism.
Male and female adults suffering from workaholism (n = 73) were allocated to MAT or a waiting-list control group. Assessments were performed at pre-, post-, and 3-month follow-up phases.
MAT participants demonstrated significant and sustained improvements over control-group participants in workaholism symptomatology, job satisfaction, work engagement, work duration, and psychological distress. Furthermore, compared to the control group, MAT participants demonstrated a significant reduction in hours spent working but without a decline in job performance.
Discussion and conclusions
MAT may be a suitable intervention for treating workaholism. Further controlled intervention studies investigating the effects of SG-MBIs on workaholism are warranted.
Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) is characterized by a persistent failure to control intense and recurrent sexual impulses, urges, and/or thoughts, resulting in repetitive sexual behavior that causes a marked impairment in important areas of functioning. Despite its recent inclusion in the forthcoming ICD-11, concerns regarding its assessment, diagnosis, prevalence or clinical characteristics remain. The purpose of this study was to identify participants displaying CSBD through a novel data-driven approach in two independent samples and outline their sociodemographic, sexual, and clinical profile.
Sample 1 included 1,581 university students (females = 56.9%; Mage = 20.58) whereas sample 2 comprised 1,318 community members (females = 43.6%; Mage = 32.37). First, we developed a new composite index to assess the whole range of CSBD symptoms based on three previously validated scales. Based on this new composite index, we subsequently identified individuals with CSBD through a cluster analytic approach.
The estimated occurrence of CSBD was 10.12% in sample 1 and 7.81% in sample 2. Participants with CSBD were mostly heterosexual males, younger than respondents without CSBD, reported higher levels of sexual sensation seeking and erotophilia, an increased offline and especially online sexual activity, more depressive and anxious symptoms, and poorer self-esteem.
This research provides further evidence on the occurrence of CSBD based on an alternative data-driven approach, as well as a detailed and nuanced description of the sociodemographic, sexual, and clinical profile of adults with this condition. Clinical implications derived from these findings are discussed in detail.
Cocaine use disorder (CUD) and gambling disorder (GD) share clinical features and neural alterations, including emotion regulation deficits and dysfunctional activation in related networks. However, they also exhibit differential aspects, such as the neuroadaptive effects of long-term drug consumption in CUD as compared to GD. Neuroimaging research aimed at disentangling their shared and specific alterations can contribute to improve understanding of both disorders.
We compared CUD (N = 15), GD (N = 16) and healthy comparison (HC; N = 17) groups using a network-based approach for studying temporally coherent functional networks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of an emotion regulation task. We focused our analysis in limbic, ventral frontostriatal, dorsal attentional (DAN) and executive networks (FPN), given their involvement in emotion regulation and their alteration in CUD and GD. Correlations with measures of emotional experience and impulsivity (UPPS-P) were also performed.
The limbic network was significantly decreased during emotional processing both for CUD and GD individuals compared to the HC group. Furthermore, GD participants compared to HC showed an increased activation in the ventral frontostriatal network during emotion regulation. Finally, networks' activation patterns were modulated by impulsivity traits.
Functional network analyses revealed both overlapping and unique effects of stimulant and gambling addictions on neural networks underpinning emotion regulation.