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Lymphomas are solid tumors consisting of lymphoid cells; they form a heterogeneous group of less or more malignant disorders. A portion of lymphomas develop due to latent herpesvirus infections established in B and/or T-lymphocytes. The basis for latency is a lifelong presence of the circularized covalently linked viral genome within nuclei of carrier lymphocytes. In certain cases, however, the essential event leading to tumor formation is the integration of a portion(s) of viral DNA into the host cell DNA. This leads to rearrangements within the host cell genome on one hand, and, on other hand, to unregulated expression of oncoproteins encoded by the integrated fragment. Our review deals with mechanisms of lymphoma formation regarding to the role of non-structural herpesvirus oncoproteins interfering with the regulation of cell division and/or exerting anti-apoptotic effects. In addition, the authors wish to highlight the common procedures, which allowed isolation and/or identification of lymphoma-associated viruses in cell cultures derived from tumors and/or proliferating lymphatic tissues.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Nóra Gyémánt, Annamária Molnár, Gabriella Spengler, Yvette Mándi, Margit Szabó, and J. Molnár

Various bacterial plasmids can be eliminated from bacterial species cultured as pure or mixed bacterial cultures by non-mutagenic heterocyclic compounds at subinhibitory concentrations. For plasmid curing, the replication should be inhibited at three different levels simultaneously: the intracellular replication of plasmid DNA, partition and intercellular transconjugal transfer. The antiplasmid action of the compounds depends on the chemical structure.  The targets for antiplasmid compounds were analysed in detail. It was found that amplified extrachromosomal DNA in the superhelical state binds more drug molecules than does the linear or open-circular form of the plasmid or the chromosome, without stereospecificity which leads to functional inactivation of the extrachromosomal genetic code. Plasmid elimination also occurs in ecosystems containing numerous bacterial species simultaneously, but the elimination of antibiotic resistance-encoding plasmids from all individual cells of the population is never complete.  The medical significance of plasmid elimination in vitro is, it provides a method to isolate plasmid-free bacteria for biotechnology without any risk of mutations, and it opens up a new perspective in rational drug design against bacterial plasmids.  Hypothetically, the combination of antiplasmid drugs and antibiotics may improve the effectivity of antibiotics against resistant bacteria; therefore, the results cannot be exploited until the curing efficiency reaches 100%. Inhibition of the conjugational transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids can be exploited to reduce the spreading of these plasmids in ecosystems.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Gabriella Spengler, Annamária Molnár, G. Klausz, Yvette Mándi, M. Kawase, N. Motohashi, and J. Molnár

The inhibition of bacterial motility was studied by a trifluoro methyl ketone derivative on two Escherichia coli strains (wild strain having a proton pump system and the proton pump-deficient mutant strain) and two Helicobacter pylori strains (clarithromycin susceptible and clarithromycin resistant). Evidence is presented of the inhibitory action of 1-(2-benzoxazolyl)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-propanone (TF18) on the proton motive forces of the two bacterial strains by affecting the action of biological motor and proton efflux in the membranes. The swimming, the forward motion was more sensitive than the vibration or tumbling to the inhibition. We suppose that the inhibiton of bacterial motility is related to the virulence of bacteria: consequently the pathogenicity can be reduced in the presence of TF18.

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The weight of internal organs (swimbladder, kidney, liver, spleen) in relation to the body weight was studied in common carp fingerlings divided into three groups on the basis of swimbladder appearance and microscopic examination of the kidney. The fish had been collected from different Hungarian fish farms at the time when swimbladder inflammation (SBI) usually occurs (in July and August). The first group comprised fish with severe signs of SBI and massive renal sphaerosporosis, the second group consisted of fish with milder swimbladder changes and/or kidney infection by a low number of Sphaerospora renicola, while the third group was constituted by infection-free common carp fry. Statistical analysis of swimbladder, kidney, liver and spleen weight in relation to the body weight revealed that in the infected groups the internal organs were substantially enlarged. This suggests that in common carp fry with SBI the swimbladder changes are accompanied by reno-, hepato- and splenomegaly.

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Hypertonic small-volume resuscitation transiently restores the cardiovascular function during various circulatory disturbances. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator of flow-induced peripheral and central hemodynamic changes, and therefore, we hypothesized that a decreased endogenous NO production could influence the consequences and the effectiveness of hypertonic fluid therapy. The main goal of this study was to outline and compare the circulatory effects small volume hypertonic saline-dextran (HSD, 7.5% NaCl-10% dextran; 4 ml/kg iv) infusion with (n=7) or without (n=7) artificially diminished NO production in normovolemic anesthetized dogs. HSD administration significantly increased cardiac index (CI), coronary flow (CF) and myocardial contractility, and elevated plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels. However, the late (2 h) postinfusion period was characterized by significantly decreased myocardial NO synthase (NOS) and enhanced myeloperoxidase activities. Pre-treatment with the non-selective NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine (NNA, 4 mg/kg) immediately increased cardiac contractility, and the HSD-induced CI and CF elevations and the positive inotropy were absent. Additionally, plasma ET-1 levels increased and NOx levels were significantly decreased. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that HSD infusion leads to preponderant vasoconstriction when endogenous NO synthesis is diminished, and this could explain the loss of effectiveness of HSD resuscitation in NO-deficient states.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: A. Molnár, P. Sarlós, G. Fáncsi, J. Rátky, Sz. Nagy, and A. Kovács

Semen of an infertile Dutch White (Saanenthal) goat buck was examined. Light and electron microscopic examinations showed aberrations of the sperm tails resembling the so-called Dag or Dag-like defects described in several cattle breeds. Ejaculated semen showed that virtually all of the cells had strongly coiled or broken tails, or fractured midpieces. Ultrastructural investigations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed uneven distribution of the mitochondria in the midpiece. Coiled tails were encapsulated by a common membrane, and dislocated axial fibres and different membranous structures were also present. The ultrastructural characteristics of the defective sperm tails, the missing parts of the axial fibre bundle and the misalignment of the mitochondria indicate that this first case reported in goat is similar to the Dag-like defect in cattle.

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The aim of this study was to outline the consequences of a hypertonic saline-dextran-40 (HSD) infusion-induced peripheral flow stimulus on the ventricular function in closed-chest, pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. We hypothesized that HSD-induced elevation in endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) release can have a role in myocardial contractile responses; and that cardiac mast cells (MC) degranulation may be involved in this process. The consequences of disodium cromoglycate (a MC stabilizer) or ETR-p1/fl peptide (an endothelin-A receptor antagonist) treatment were evaluated. A 4 ml/kg iv HSD40 infusion significantly increased cardiac index and myocardial contractility, and resulted in a decreased peripheral resistance. The postinfusion period was characterized by significant plasma NO and ET-1 elevations, these hemodynamic and biochemical changes being accompanied by a decreased myocardial ET-1 content, NO synthase activity and enhanced myocardial MC degranulation. Disodium cromoglycate treatment inhibited the HSD40-induced elevations in myocardial contractility and MC degranulation, and similar hemodynamic changes were noted after treatment with ETR-p1/fl peptide, together with a normalized myocardial myocardial ET-1 content, NO synthesis and a significant reduction in MC degranulation. These results indicate that peripheral NO and ET-1 release modulates the cardiac contractility through myocardial ET-A receptor activation and MC degranulation.

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The fungal revolution taking place in otorhinology inspired us to study the frequency of occurrence of fungi in the nasal mucus of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients (with or without polyposis) in order to evaluate the incidence of eosinophilic fungal sinusitis in CRS patients. Ninety-six samples were examined from patients with CRS. In 74 cases mucus was collected non-invasively, and in 22 cases during operation. The Gram-stained direct smears of all samples were also evaluated. Bacteria and fungi colonizing in the mucus were detected by culturing method. The control group consisted of 50 healthy volunteers. Typical aerobic pathogenic bacteria could be isolated from 34 patients. Fifty-seven aerobic bacteria were isolated, i.e. 1.6 bacteria/positive patient with a maximum of 3 different bacteria/sample. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. Yeasts and moulds could be detected from 79 patients (83%): Candida albicans, Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp, and Penicillium spp. were isolated most frequently. Altogether 237 yeasts and moulds were isolated, i.e. 3.0 different fungi/positive patient, with a maximum of 5 different fungi/sample. In the control group aerobic pathogens were not isolated, only apathogenic species. Fungi were isolated from 22 healthy patients (44%). These data indicate that fungi are frequently involved in the aetiology of CRS. IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to fungal allergens could not be proven in our patients.

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Cerebral state monitor (CSM) is a recently developed anaesthesia depth monitor based on EEG measurement. Medline search confirmed that the accuracy of this monitor has already been compared with BIS monitoring; however, we did not find any studies comparing CSM monitor with AEP monitoring. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between AAI using AEP monitor and CSI (cerebral state index) using CSM monitor. Methods: Prospective, observational study involving 39 ASA I–III patients undergoing lumbar discus hernia operation. Simultaneous registration of CSI and AAI was performed during general anaesthesia. The identical values were off-line analysed. Additionally in 20 patients parallel registration of CSI and AAI was undertaken while anaesthesia was guided based on routine clinical signs. Results: While analysing the data in the superficial, ideal and deep anaesthesia zones, we found that a relationship between CSI and AAI is weak. Our patients spent roughly the half of the clinical anaesthesia in the ideal zone based on the AAI index and less than 50% based on CSI. Almost one fifth of clinical anaesthesia based on AAI and nearly 40% based on CSI was spent in the deep anaesthesia zones. A superficial anaesthesia has been detected in 27% of time based on AAI and 17% based on CSI. Conclusions: CSI and AAI weakly correlated to each other. Depth of anaesthesia monitors may be useful in detecting patients who spend valuable time within the deep anaesthetic zone.

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Understanding the role of nutrition in the development of children’s physical, mental, and motor abilities.


Examination of visiting nurse reports on feeding habits and perceived developmental delays in infants at 1 year of age between 2010 and 2015.


Between 0 and 6 months of age the lowest number of new cases (4.4/100,000) identified by health screenings can be anticipated among the infants feeding exclusively with breastmilk. We find a similarly low number of identifiable new cases among infants nourished with breastmilk where it is mixed with other nutrients (4.7 new cases) while the most cases of delayed motor development can be anticipated among infants nourished with infant formulae (48.4 new cases).


The role of nutrition in infants’ motor development is vital, especially breastfeeding. Regular health status checks of infants are inevitably required for the adoption of higher-level health-policy decisions which may induce projects, programmes, and strategies aimed at the improvement of health. Thorough documentation and continuous collection of the pertinent data is likewise requisite.

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