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Experience shows that the nuclear power plant can be safely designed for vibratory effects of earthquakes. Contrary to this, the plants can be heavily damaged by effects of earthquake-induced phenomena like tsunami, soil liquefaction after surviving the ground shaking effects. In the paper, the nuclear power plant’s safety analysis methodology is outlined for the case of soil liquefaction. In the paper the methodology for safety analysis of nuclear power plants for the case of liquefaction is outlined for both deterministic and probabilistic cases. It is shown, how the analysis of consequences of the liquefaction has to be embedded into the overall analysis of plant seismic safety. The selection of hazard and the fragility assessment methods is discussed from the point of view of needs of safety analysis.

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Abstract

There are numerous biological agents including bacteria such as Brucella suis, B. abortus, Francisella tularensis, Burkholderia mallei, Coxiella burnetii, Yersina pestis, Bacillus anthracis and Chlamydia psittaci, viruses such as Variola major and V. minor, Flavivirus and Hantavirus, and toxins such as Botulinum toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, Staphylococcus enterotoxin B and Trichothecene mycotoxin reported to have potential to cause illness via water consumption. In the recent years, biological threat prevention for urban water supply systems has been of special interest worldwide, thus, protection against biological agents requires adequate knowledge, available water treatment technologies and preparedness. In this review, the history of biological threat via public water supply, as well as selected early detection methods, prevention strategies and risk assessment models are detailed.

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