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The volatile compounds of acerola wine were isolated by headspace–solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The composition of acerola wine included 38 esters, 19 alcohols, 16 acids, 8 terpenes, 5 aldehydes, 5 ketones, 3 furans, and 8 miscellaneous compounds. The odour-active compounds were screened by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis and odour activity values. Nineteen odorants were considered as odour-active volatiles, from which methyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-ethylhexan-1-ol were the most odour-active compounds.

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The volatile compounds in commercial rums declared as aged 3, 7, 10, and 15 years were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation and analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry. According to the aroma extract dilution analysis, 19 potentially aroma-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD) factor range of 8 to 1024 were found. Fifteen of them were present in at least one aged rum at FD factor≥128. Clear differences in the FD factors of these odourants between each of the aged rums suggested that they contributed to their unique sensory profiles.

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Response surface methodology was used to optimize spray-drying process for concentrated orange juice. Independent variables were: inlet air temperature (130–170 ºC) and maltodextrin 12DE content (60–75% wet basis (wb)). Responses variables were powder yield, moisture, and ascorbic acid retention. Moisture content was negatively affected by inlet air temperature, while ascorbic acid retention was directly related. Powder yield and ascorbic acid retention increased with the rise in maltodextrin content, while moisture content was negatively affected by maltodextrin content. Multiple response optimisation indicated that an inlet air temperature of 155 ºC and maltodextrin content of 74% wb were predicted to provide 77% powder yield, 3.7% wb moisture content, and 89% ascorbic acid retention.

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Abstract

The effect of processing parameters on microencapsulation of oregano essential with maltodextrin:gum arabic using a disk atomiser spray-dryer was evaluated. By means of response surface methodology, the feed flow rate and inlet air temperature were optimised. Powder yield, moisture content, essential oil retention, and antioxidant activity of microparticles were evaluated. The best conditions to produce microencapsulated oregano essential oil were 0.6 L h−1 for feed flow rate and 200 °C for inlet air temperature. With this combination a microencapsulated powder with 89.8% powder yield, 2.1% moisture content, 92.1% essential oil retention, 76 s solubilisation time, 12.9 g of water/100 g of dry matter, 0.3371 g mL−1 bulk density, 0.5826 g mL−1 tapped density, and 8.2 μm of average particle size was produced. The microencapsulation of oregano essential oil preserves the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of its bioactive compounds.

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The volatile compounds of black sapote fruit were isolated by simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 32 volatile constituents were detected, which represented 4.57 mg kg−1 of the fruit. The composition of volatile constituents of the fruit included 9 terpene compounds (49.1% of the total volatile composition), 11 ketones (9%), 5 aldehydes (29.2%), 4 alcohols (3.6%), 2 esters (8.2%) and a paraffin (0.8%). Major compounds were (Z)-b-ocimene (26.6% of the total volatile composition), (E)-cinnamaldehyde (25.5%) and limonene (17.0%). By application of odour activity values, seven constituents were considered as aroma-active volatiles, from which the most important were (E)-cinnamaldehyde, 3-methylbutanal, limonene, (Z)-β-ocimene, linalool, methyl (E)-cinnamate, and β-caryophyllene.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
J.A. Pino
,
E. Sauri-Duch
,
O. Sosa-Moguel
,
C.A. Can-Cauich
,
V.M. Moo-Huchin
, and
L. Cuevas-Glory

An aroma distillate with the odour note described as ‘fresh Habanero chilli pepper' was obtained from hydrodistillation of the fruit. GC-MS analysis of the volatile constituents from the aroma distillate allowed the identification of 100 compounds, most of them esters followed by aldehydes, alcohols, terpenes, ketones, and acids. Encapsulation process of the aroma distillate by spray drying was optimised using response surface methodology. Independent variables were inlet air temperature (150-200 °C) and carrier (maltodextrin 10 DE and gum arabic in 2:1 ratio) content (10-20% wb), while response variables were powder moisture and volatiles retention. Moisture content of the powder varied inversely proportional to the air temperature, while the volatile retention was directly related. Retention of volatiles in the powder increased when the carrier content increased, while this factor negatively affected moisture content. Based on the optimisation model of the response variables, the powder with the highest flavour quality was obtained with an air inlet temperature of 200 °C and 20% wb carrier content, with 4% moisture content and 88.6% volatiles retention.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
L. Cuevas-Glory
,
M. Bringas-Lantigua
,
E. Sauri-Duch
,
O. Sosa-Moguel
,
J.A. Pino
, and
H. Loría-Sunsa

In this study, production of sour orange juice powder utilizing a spray dryer was investigated. To prevent stickiness, maltodextrin DE 12 was used as a drying agent. While feed flow rate, feed temperature, and air flow rate were kept constant, inlet air temperature (120–160 °C) and maltodextrin content (maltodextrin dry solids/100 g feed mixture dry solids; 10–20%, w/w) were selected as the independent variables. Product properties investigated included ascorbic acid, volatile compounds, and moisture content. Ascorbic acid retention, volatiles retention, and moisture content were used in optimization of the process by response surface methodology. The optimum inlet air temperature and maltodextrin content were 156 °C and 20% w/w maltodextrin, respectively. This study revealed that by applying these optimal conditions, sour orange juice powder with 81.5% ascorbic acid retention, 5.5%, w/w moisture content, and 78% volatiles retention was produced.

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